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HISTORY 

OF THE 

Stewart or Stuart 
Family 

BY 

HENRY LEE 



NEW YORK 
R. L. POLK AND COMPANY, INC 



PO Box 2270 '\ 

Fort Wayne JN 46801.2276 



Copyright, 1920, 
R. L. Polk & Co- Inc 



V 

mo 



Table of Contents: 

Chapter 1 7 

Origin of the Name — Na Stiubhartich — Stewart, 
Steuart and Stuart — Ancestral Traditions — Fergus, Son 
of Ferquhard — Banquo, Thane of Lochaber — The 
Dapifer of Del— The High Stewards of Scotland— The 
First King of the Race. 

Chapter II . . 21 

Early Cadets of the Family — Sir John of Bonkyl — Sir 
James of Peristoun — The Black Knight of Lorn — 
Albany — The Wolf of Badenoch — Alexander, Earl of 
Mar — Athole. 

Chapter III 35 

The Clan and the Crown — The Badge and Tartan — 
Branches of the Clan — Dugald and the Clan Appin — 
The Clan Marching Song— Donald of the Hammers — 
The Atholemen — The Clach Dearg of Ardvoirlich — 
Sliochd Aileen 'ic Rob. 

Chapter IV 53 

The Dynasty — Mary, Queen of Scots — Bonnie Prince 
Charlie. 

Chapter V 67 

Early American History of the Family — Story of Early 
Settlers of the Name — Patrick Stuart, Laird of Led- 
creich — John Stewart of Londonderry — Rev. John 
Stuart — Stewart of Georgia — Lieut. William Stewart — 
George Stuart — Colonel Stuart of Virginia. 

Chapter VI 84 

The Family in Revolutionary Times — From the Revolu- 
tion to the Civil War — Civil War Records. 

Chapter VII loi 

The Family in the United States. 

Chapter VIII I12 

Lines of Descent in Scotland, England and Ireland — 
Heads of the Family — Notable Members of the Family 
in the British Empire. 

Chapter IX I2i 

Armorial Bearings. 



9776:? 




PREFACE 

LL races of men seem to have an intui- 
tive feeling that it is a subject of legiti- 
mate pride to be one of a clan or family 
whose name is written large in past his- 
tory and present affairs. Everybody likes to know 
something about his forefathers, and to be able to tell 
to his children the tales or stories about their an- 
cestors, which he himself has heard from his parents. 
The commandment, "Honor thy father and thy 
mother," is good and sufficient authority for that feel- 
ing of reverence which is so generally shown towards 
a line of honorable ancestry. The history of the fam- 
ily was a matter of much importance to the Greek; 
it was the custom of a primitive Roman to preserve 
in the aula of his house the images of all the illus- 
trious men the family had produced ; the Chinese go 
so far as to magnify such reverence into ancestor 
worship ; and even the Red Indian of our own North- 
west recorded the traditions of his ancestors on the 
totem of his tribe. Well, then, may the story of the 
chivalry, courage and even lawlessness (so often the 
mate of courage) of their forefathers find a respbnsive 
echo in the hearts of their present day descendants, 
"who come of ane house, and being of ane surname, 
notwithstanding this lang tyme bygane." It is not 
intended in this story of the family to attempt any 
genealogical investigation, or to show any family 
tree, but rather to tell of those bygone members of 
the clan in whose achievements and history it is 
the common heritage of all who bear the name to 

5 



6 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

take pride and interest — old stories of the Royal house, 
old stories of reckless bravery, of scions of the Royal 
stock who were good and true friends, but fierce and 
bitter enemies — stories of the progenitors of the race 
who fought hard, lived hard, and died as they fought 
and lived. Those olden days may seem a time of 
scant respect for law, of misdirected chivalry and of 
brave deeds often wrongly done, but there is surely 
no true Stewart or Stuart who, in his inmost heart, 
is not proud to claim descent from the illustrious 
race, whose ancient records are replete with many 
regal and romantic traditions, reminding all who 
hold, or shall hereafter hold, the honored name, that 
they 

"Fetch their life and being 
From men of Royal siege;" 

whose later records tell of those early adventurers 
who left their native hills and glens for the new 
land of promise, and whose descendants have, in more 
pirosaic times, earned honors in literature, arms and 
art. "It is wise for us to recur to the history of our 
ancestors. Those who do not look upon themselves 
as links connecting the past with the future do not 
fulfill their duty in the world." 




HISTORY OF THE FAMILY 

OF 

STEWART OR STUART 

CHAPTER I. 

jHE Royal race of Stewart or Stuart can 
boast a line of unbroken ancestry equalled 
by few families who have occupied the 
thrones of Europe, and the origin of the 
name and early history of the house are matters of na- 
tional interest. The history of the family of Stewart, Na 
Stiubhartich, begins before the invention of surnames, 
which, according to accepted authorities, were first 
used by the Normans in the twelfth century. Al- 
though historians differ as to the ancestral origin of 
the family, the origin of the name of Stewart seems 
clear. Obviously derived from the high ofhce of 
Steward of the Royal Household, it was probably first 
used as a surname by Walter, the third of the family 
to occupy that hereditary office, and who died about 
1246. The orthography of the name consonant with 
its rise seems therefore the most ancient. But dif- 
ferent races in process of time have altered the name, 
and accordingly we find it also written Steuart, and 
by the later Royal family of Scotland, Stuart. A 
probable explanation of the different methods of writ- 
ing the name seems to be, that the early main line 
used Stewart, derived from their office of hereditary 
Lord High Steward, and therefore those who retain 
the original spelling are descended from some one or 
other of the branches which diverged from the main 
line at a period antecedent to the use of Stuart by 
the later Royal family. Also that the families who 
adopt the spelling of Steuart are offshoots of the 
Royal house previously to that time. The close con- 

7 



8 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

nection which existed between Scotland and France 
appears to be responsible for the practice of writing the 
name in the form of Stuart, as the French are with- 
out the w in their alphabet. Sir John Stewart of 
Darnley and D'Aubigny has been mentioned as being 
the first to use the French spelling, at the time he 
was in the service of the Court of France. Mary, 
Queen of Scots, owing to her residence in France and 
strong attachment to all things French, contributed to 
bring the innovation into use in the Royal family, al- 
though her son. King James VI of Scotland and I of 
England, in some charters, prefers the earlier orthog- 
raphy ; and in the death warrant of Charles I the name 
is spelled Steuart. Historians, rightly or wrongly, have 
generally applied to the Royal family, since the time 
of Queen Mary, the method of writing the name 
adopted by her, Stuart, and, in the case of the different 
families, that mode of orthography has been rightly 
followed which the families have long been in the 
habit of using. 

In considering the ancestral origin of the family we 
find much that is, of course, established by proof, 
much, also, that is traditional and speculative. But 
to discard, as untrue, all tradition incapable of proof, 
would do away with much of early history, and it 
is therefore intended to present both the traditional 
and authenticated history of the progenitors of the 
family. ^ 

One fact stands out clearly, namely, that the house 
of Stewart or Stuart provided a race of Scottish Kings 
who occupied the throne of Scotland for upwards 
of three hundred years, and that of England for 
more than one hundred years ; and from whom the 
present dynasty of Great Britain and Ireland are de- 
scended. The first of such Kings was Robert Stewart, 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 9 

afterwards King Robert II, the son of Walter Stewart, 
sixth hereditary Lord High Steward of Scotland, by 
his wife, the Princess Marjory, daughter of King 
Robert the Bruce. He was therefore descended on 
the maternal side from the line of Scottish Kings, and 
on the paternal side from the house of Stewart. 

Many stories that are probably mythical have been 
told concerning the ancestral origin of both the male 
and female lines. In the case of the female line, could 
it be shown that the dynasty of Scotland was older 
than that of England, then the claim of the latter 
dynasty to overlordship would be overthrown, and 
patriotic historians have endeavored to adduce proof 
of such seniority. As an instance, Bisset, an emis- 
sary of Scotland to the Papal Court, appeared before 
Pope Boniface VIII, in 1301, in support of Scottish 
independence, and told the remarkable story recorded 
in his, "Progressus contra figmenta regis Angliae," 
that the Egyptian Princess Scota was the founder of 
the Dalriad dynasty, and progenitress of the Scoto-Pic- 
tish Kings. This Scota was the daughter of the Pharaoh 
who was drowned in the Red Sea, and is said to have 
married Gathelus, a son of Cecrops, King of Athens, 
with whom, and a goodly following, she fled from 
Egypt tO' Spain to escape the plagues in the former 
country. From Spain they and their followers later 
set sail and landed in Ireland, from which country they 
afterwards went over to Scotland, bringing with them, 
according to Bisset, the coronation stone of Scone. 

Another account states that the first of the Scot- 
tish line of Kings was the Dalriadic Fergus, son of 
Ferquahad, whom the historian Buchanan relates 
"began to reign in the year of the world 3641, before 
the coming of Christ 330 years." But the generally 
accepted founder of the Dalriadic dynasty was the 



10 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

much later Fergus Mor Mac Earca. Dalriada was 
the ancient name for the northern part of the county 
of Antrim, Ireland. The Dalriads are supposed to 
have descended from Carbry Riada, (Riogh-fhada, i. e. 
of the long wrist), a son of a chief of the Scots in 
Ireland, who ruled not only in the district of Ireland 
named after him, but crossed to Scotland and settled 
in the land of the Picts. About the year 500 A. D. 
the Dalriads, led by Fergus, passed over to what is 
now Argyllshire, where they settled themselves per- 
manently, and formed the Kingdom of "Dalriada in 
Albany," which later extended and became the King- 
dom of Scotland. 

So much for the ancestors of the first Stewart King 
in the female line. With regard to the male line, 
early historians, supported by charters and deeds, trace 
with accuracy the descent from Alan, father of Walter 
the first Steward of the Royal household, under King 
David I, who reigned from 1124 to 1153. They do 
not, however, agree as to the ancestral origin of 
Alan, some historians agreeing with the tradition 
which connects the male Stewart line with Kenneth 
Mac Alpine, who in the year 844 became King of 
the united Dalriads, Picts and Scots, thus knitting to- 
gether the male and female line of the first Stewart 
king in a common ancestral origin, for, as we have 
seen, it is claimed that the founder of the line of 
Scottish kings was Fergus, whose reign, according to 
Buchanan, began B. C. 330. Tradition traces the de- 
scent from this Fergus through thirty-two genera- 
tions down to Kenneth Mac Alpine, who, in 859 A. D., 
was succeeded by his brother Donald. Constantine, 
the brother of Kenneth Mac Alpine, succeeded Donald 
in 863, being followed by his brother Ethus in 877. 
At this point the descent of the progenitors of the 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 11 

Stewarts diverges from that of the Scottish Kings, 
into the line of Doir, second son of Ethus. But, later, 
on the death of David II, in 1371, the representation 
of the main Hne devolved upon his nephew, Robert 
Stewart, (Robert II), the descendent ot Doir. 

Doir, second son of Ethus, was Maormor, or Thane 
of Lochaber. He married Osfleda, daughter of Osbert, 
King- of Northumbria, and died in 936. His son, 
Murdoch, married Dervegil, daughter of Hugh, said 
to be the ancestor of the family of Douglas. Murdoch 
died in 959, and was followed by his brother Ferqu- 
hard, who was killed at Loncarty in the year 980. 
Kenneth, the son of Ferquhard, married a daughter 
of King Kenneth HI, and died in 1030 leaving a son, 
Banquo, the Thane of I^ochaber, whose posterity, the 
witches on the blasted heath foretold, were to be Kings 
of Scotland, "Thou shalt get Kings, though thou be 
none," the witches, enigmatically declaring him to be 
"lesser than Macbeth and greater, not so happy 3'et 
much happier." He was murdered by Macbeth about 
1050. 

Of Fleance, the son of Banquo, Hollinshed in his 
Chronicles says, "Macbeth devised to slay Banquo 
and his soune. It chanced through the benefit of a 
dark night that though the father was slain, the son 
yet, by the help of Almighty God reserving him to 
better fortune, escaped that danger, and to avoid fur- 
ther trouble fled into Wales." Another early histor- 
ian states, that Fleance "fled to the Prince of North 
Wales, Griffyth ap Lewellyn, with whose daughter 
Guenta being enamoured, the Welsh Princess bore to 
Fleance a son, Alan." Camden says Fleance was mur- 
dered, about the year 1060, on account of the favor 
with which he, a stranger, was looked upon by the 
Welsh Prince. In consequence of a quarrel at the 



12 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

Welsh Court, about 1067, Alan, the sou of Fleance, is 
said to have returned to his father's native country 
of Scotland, at a time when Edgar Atheling, v^ith his 
mother and tvjo sisters, had left England, and placed 
themselves under the protection of Michael Canmore, 
(Malcolm III, 1058-1093), who soon after married 
Margaret, the elder of the two Princesses. Alan en- 
tered the service of King Malcolm, and went to the 
Crusade of 1 096-1099, where it is stated "he p>erformed 
great things in the Holy Land under the standard of 
Godfred of Bouillon," and was present at the taking 
of Jerusalem in the latter year. Alan went to Eng- 
land, possibly in the entourage of the Princess Matilda, 
who married Henry I in the year iioo, and entered 
the service of the English King, receiving from the 
King various grants of land in Norfolk and Shrop- 
shire, with the whole "Honour of the Sheriff of Shrop- 
shire." Some time prior to the year 1105, he married 
Avelina, daughter of Ernulph de Hesding, by whom 
he had four sons, William, ancestor of the Fitz Alans, 
Earls of Arundel, which Earldom, in 1556, became 
merged in the Duchy of Norfolk ; Walter, afterwards 
the first High Steward of Scotland ; Jordan, whose 
line became extinct in the pterson of his son ; and Simon, 
who accompanied Walter to Scotland and had a son, 
Robert, known as Boidh, fair or yellow, the ancestor 
of the Boyds and the Earls of Kilmarnock. 

Other historians claim that Alan, the father of the 
first Steward of Scotland was of Breton origin, and 
took descent from an earlier Alan who was Dap'ifer 
or Seneschallus of Dol, in Northern France. This 
Alan is said to have had two sons, the elder of whom, 
Alan, succeeded his father as Dapifer of Dol, and 
was a leader of the Crusade in 1097. The younger 
son, Flaad, is said by Pinkerton to have been the 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 13 

father of the agreed ancestor, Alan. Pinkerton states 
that Alan, the son of Flaad, was a Norman Baron, who 
obtained from William the Conqueror the Barony of 
Oswestry, in Shropshire, and agrees with regard to 
three of the sons named in the first mentioned account, 
namely, William, the ancestor of the Fitz Alans, Earls 
of Arundel ; Walter, the Steward of Scotland ; and 
Simon, who accompanied Walter to Scotland. But, 
neither in the Domesday Book, the Roll of Battle 
Abbey, nor in any account of those who accompanied 
William the Conqueror from Normandy, is the name 
of Alan or his father included. 

Walter, the son of Alan, came to Scotland and was 
appointed by King David I (1124-1153) Steward of 
the Royal household. The duties of High Steward 
were of the greatest importance, comprising the man- 
agement of the Royal household, collection of the 
National revenue, and the command of the King's 
armies. From the King, Walter obtained grants 
of the lands of Renfrew, Pollock, Cathcart and others 
in that district. These grants were confirmed by Mal- 
colm IV in 1 1 57. In 1 160, Walter founded the Abbey 
of Paisley, the Benedictine monks of which came from 
the Priory of Wenlock, in Shropshire. Chalmers says, 
"The manor of Dundonald belonged to Walter, the 
son of Alan, who held the whole of the northern 
half of Kyle. Perhaps the Castle of Dundonald was 
built by the first Walter who had no appropriate house 
or castle when he settled in Scotland." The Castle 
of Dundonald stands on an isolated hill, eight miles 
north of Ayr. Walter died in 1177, and was buried 
in the Monastery of Paisley, which became the bury- 
ing place of the family until their accession to the 
throne. 

Alan, the son of Walter succeeded as High Steward 



14 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

of Scotland and died in 1204, leaving a son, Walter, 
whom Alexander II appointed Judiciary of Scotland 
in addition to the hereditary office of Lord High 
Steward. The practice of using the name of the 
hereditary office as a surname is ascribed to this 
Walter, who settled the name of Stewart on his de- 
scendants. Walter died in 1246, leaving three sons and 
three daughters. His sons were, Alexander, the eldest 
and successor as Lord High Steward; Sir John, who 
was killed at Damietta, in Egypt; and Sir Walter, 
known as "Bailloch" or the freckled, who became the 
Earl of Menteith. 

Alexander Stewart, the fourth Lord High Steward 
of Scotland, was, in 1255, one of the Regents of Scot- 
land, and councillors of King Alexander III, who 
was but eight years of age when crowned at Scone in 
1249. Alexander married Jean, the heiress of James, 
Lord of Bute and grandson of Somerled, Lord of the 
Isles, and in her right seized the Isles Arran and Bute. 
Roderick of Bute complained to Hakon, King of Nor- 
way, of the encroachments of the Scots, and the Nor- 
wegian King, in 1263, appeared at Kirkwall with a 
large fleet. King Hakon was defeated at the Battle 
of Largs, 2nd October, 1263, in which battle the High 
Steward commanded the right wing of the Scottish 
army. Alexander Stewart died in 1283. 

He had two sons, James Stewart, his successor, 
and Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl in Berwickshire. Also 
a daughter, Elizabeth, who married Sir William Doug- 
las, ancestor of the Earls of Douglas. Sir John Stew- 
art of Bonkyl was the ancestor of many noble fam- 
ilies as will be told later. On the death of King 
Alexander III, in 1286, James Stewart, Lord High 
Steward, was one of the six Regents of Scotland dur- 
ing the infant Queen Margaret's absence in "Noroway 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 15 

* 

over the faem." The six custodians of the realm were, 
The Bishop of St. Andrews, The Earl of Fife, The Earl 
of Buchan, The Lord of Badenoch, The Bishop of 
Glasgow, and James, the Steward. Three of the Re- 
gents took charge north, and three south, of the Forth. 
As showing the necessity for the division of authority, 
the seal used by the burghers of Stirling, in 1296, may 
be mentioned. The seal represents the stone bridge 
over the Forth, with a crucifix in the centre, to the 
right of which men with spears aim them at men 
with bows at the left. Above the spearmen appear 
the words, "Hie armis bruti Scoti stant;" above the 
bowmen, "Hie cruce tuti," meaning to distinguish the 
bruti Scoti, ("Hieland brutes"), from the "Christians" 
south of the Forth. In 1289, with the parties of 
Bruce and Balliol at open feud, and Scotland on the 
verge of anarchy, the management of the Kingdom 
was entrusted to the Steward while the other Regents 
journeyed to England to treat with Edward I. He 
signed the Ragman Roll in 1296 containing the in- 
struments of fealty to Edward, but the same year, he 
and his brother Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl associated 
themselves with Wallace. In 1306 he wasi compelled 
to swear fealty to the English King at Lanercost, and 
to render his oath as binding as possible, it was taken 
upon the two crosses of Scotland most esteemed for 
their sanctity, on the consecrated host, the Holy Gos- 
pel, and relics of saints. Nevertheless, he again sup- 
p*orted the patriotic cause, considering that his faith 
was not to a usurper, but to his country, and died in 
the service of Bruce in 1309. James Stewart resided 
at Renfrew Castle, which had originally been a royal 
residence, and is situated on high ground between the 
Cross and the Ferry on the King's Inch. 
The sixth Lord High Steward of Scotland was 



16 History of the Stewart or Sl.mrt Family 

Walter Stewart, the son of James. When only twenty- 
one years of age, he, with Douglas, commanded the 
left wing- of the Scots army at the Battle of Bannock- 
burn, 1314. 

"Walter, Stewart of Scotland syne 
That then was but a beardless lyne. 
Came with a rout of noble men 
That might by countenance be ken." 

Towards the close of the same year, Elizabeth, King 
Robert the Bruce's second wife, and his daughter 
Marjory, by his first wife, who were in captivity in 
England, were liberated in exchange for the Earl of 
Hereford ; and the young Steward was sent by King 
Robert to receive them on the Borders. Walter evi- 
dently made the most of his opportunity, for the fol- 
lowing year the King bestowed the Princess Marjory 
in marriage upon him. With her he received in dower 
a large endowment in lands, including the Barony of 
Bathgate, Linlithgowshire. He had already received 
the Lordship of Largs on the forfeiture of John Bal- 
liol. Princess Marjory died in 1316. According to 
tradition she was thrown from her horse at the Knock, 
near Renfrew, and instantly killed, leaving a son who 
was afterwards King Robert H. 

When King Robert the Bruce went to the assistance 
of his brother Edward in Ireland, he left the Kingdom 
to the sway of the High Steward and Sir James Doug- 
las. On the capture of Berwick from the English, in 
1318, Walter Stewart got the command of the town, 
which he defended against the English in 1319. In 
1322, during Bruce's invasion of England, after the 
defeat of the English at Bigland Abbey in Yorkshire, 
the Steward, with five hundred horse, pursued Edward 
to York, where with the greatest chivalry, the Stew- 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 17 

ard waited at the gates till the evening for the enemy 
to come forth and renew the combat. He died on the 
9th April, 1326, at Bathgate Castle being at the time 
of his death only thirty-three years of age. 

His son, by the Princess Marjory, Robert Stewart, 
seventh Lord High Steward, had, on the death of Ed- 
ward Bruce in 1318, been declared heir to the throne, 
always provided that King Robert the Bruce died 
without male offspring. The birth of a son, after- 
wards David n, to Bruce, in 1326, interrupted his 
prospects for a time. The Scottish chronicler Fordun 
describes Robert Stewart as, "a. comely youth, tall and 
robust, modest, liberal, gay and courteous and, for 
the innate sweetness of his disposition, generally be- 
loved of all true hearted Scotsmen." From his grand- 
father, the King, he received large grants of land in 
Kintyre. In 1333, at the age of seventeen, under the 
inspection of his kinsman Sir James Stewart, he com- 
manded the second division of the Scots army at the 
disastrous Battle of Halidon Hill. Many Stewarts of 
the different branches fell at this battle and the Eng- 
lish made much of their victory, claiming that Hali- 
don Hill had wiped out the shame of Bannockburn. 
The English soldier poet, Lawrence Minot, expresses 
this sentiment, 

"Scots out of Berwick, and out of Aberdeen, 
At the Burn of Bannock ye were far too keen. 
Many guiltless men 3^e slew, as was clearly seen, 
But King Edward has avenged it now, and fully 
too, I ween." 

Robert the Steward was comp>elled to hide in Bute, 
was forfeited by the English King, and his office of 
High Steward claimed by the Earl of Arundel, who 
pretended a right to it on account of his descent from 
William, the elder brother of Walter, the first Steward 



18 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

of the family. The following year Robert Stewart 
escaped from Bute, recovered his own castle of Du- 
noon, and reduced the Island of Bute, compelling the 
people of Renfrewshire and Ayrshire to acknowledge 
David II. On the death of Sir Andrew Moray, the 
Regent, in 1338, the command of the Scots army de- 
volved on the Steward, by whose exertions the Eng- 
lish were eventually driven from the country. In 
1341, when Stirling and Edinburgh were in Scottish 
hands, it was deemed safe to bring back David II 
from France, where he had been sent in 1334. In Oc- 
tober 1346, when David II was defeated and taken 
prisoner by the English at the Battle of Neville's 
Cross, the remains of the Scottish army were safely 
brought back to Scotland by the Earl of March and 
the Steward. David lived happily in England, while 
Robert Stewart ruled Scotland, and evinced no strong 
desire for the return of- the King. The liberation of 
the King was, in 1357, effected by the Steward, his 
own eldest son being one of the hostages sent to 
England in the sovereign's stead. But in 1363, the son 
of Robert the Bruce went to London, and offered to 
sell the freedom of Scotland to the grandson of Ed- 
ward I ; the p*roposal being that the succession to the 
throne of Scotland be settled on Prince Lionel, Duke 
of Clarence, son of the English king. This proposal 
being made to the Scots Parliament evoked the reply, 
"Never will we have an Englishman to rule over us," 
and the Steward assembled his followers to enforce 
his right of succession, which had been confirmed by 
a former Parliament. The King however awed them 
into submission, but he himself was compelled to re- 
spect the law of succession as established by Robert 
the Bruce, and conferred the Earldom of Carrick upon 
the eldest son of the Steward. The Earldom of Stra- 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 19 

thern had already been conferred on the Steward. 
Nevertheless there remained a suppressed feud be- 
tween the King, who was childless, and the Steward, 
the heir to the throne. David, having lost his first 
wife in 1362, now, in 1368, married Margaret Logic, 
who had already been four times a bride, and con- 
trived to involve his country in every kind of trouble 
and disgrace. He divorced Margaret Logic, an ac- 
tion attributed to an intention on her piart to bring in 
a "warming pan" heir. Because of her intrigues the 
King had, in January 1369, imprisoned the Steward 
and his notorious son, the Wolf of Badenoch, in Loch 
Leven Castle. King David II died in Edinburgh 
Castle on the 22nd February, 1370. The three estates 
were convened at Linlithgow to choose a king. In 
1318, Parliament had, as we have seen, settled the 
succession on the descendants of the Princess Mar- 
jory, daughter of Robert the Bruce, and Walter, the 
Steward of Scotland. Now, an opposing claim was put 
forward by Earl William of Douglas, but he could 
not defeat the claim of Robert Stewart, the successor 
established by the Bruce, and supported by Dunbar, 
March, Moray and Erskine, who held among them 
Edinburgh, Stirling and Dumbarton, the three chief 
strongholds of the Kingdom. Thus, the first Stewart 
King, Roberj II, ascended the throne. 

The direct male line of the elder branch of the 
Stewarts continued upon the throne of Scotland, in un- 
broken succession from father to son, down to James 
V, who was succeeded by his daughter, Mary, Queen 
of Scots. Her son, James VI of Scotland and I of 
England, took descent on his father's side through 
the Earl of Lennox, the head of the second branch. 

Having told the early history of the main line of the 
house of Stewart, and of their accession to the throne. 



20 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

it is not intended in this story of the family to give 
a mere chronological summary of occurrences con- 
nected with the reign of each one of their descendants 
who occupied the throne, and whose story has been 
told again and again in national history ; but, rather, 
to tell of other branches of the Stewarts and the 
numerous families of the name, which have, at dif- 
ferent periods, diverged from the main stock, and 
produced many notable figures in the life and history 
of their times. 

Before concluding this chapter on the origin of the 
family, it is interesting to note that at the time of the 
second Jubilee of the late Queen Victoria, a chart was 
prepared by an English clergyman showing the de- 
scent of the Royal family from Judah. It is in the 
form of a tabular pedigree of one thousand names, 
which shows the line of ancestry through the house 
of Stuart, back to Robert II, and traces both the pa- 
ternal and maternal line of the first Stewart King, 
through Kenneth Mac Alpine, to Fergus Mor Mac 
Earca. The line is then carried further back through 
Ferquhad, the son of Angus the Prolific, to Tea Tephi, 
the daughter of Zedekiah, who married Heremon the 
ancestor of the ancient Irish and Scottish Kings. 
From Zedekiah the line is traced back through the 
Kings of Judah to the wise King Solomon, son of 
David, and thence through nine generations to Judah. 
The author of the chart takes as his texts, "I will not 
fail David," and the following from the 89th Psalm : 
"His seed also will I make to endure for ever, and his 
throne as the days of Heaven." 




CHAPTER II. 

ONSIDERATION of the early branches 
and cadets of the Stewart family necessi- 
tates a return to Walter, the third Stew- 
ard. As mentioned in the preceding chap- 
ter, his third son was Sir Walter Stewart, called Bail- 
loch or the freckled. Having married the younger 
sister of the Countess of Menteith, Sir Walter claimed 
the Earldom in right of his wife, and by favor of the 
Estates of the realm, in 1258, obtained it, — and kept 
it. He had two sons, Alexander, his successor, and 
Sir John Stewart of Ruskie. Alexander's grandson, 
Alan, Earl of Menteith, was succeeded by a daughter, 
married to Sir John Graham, who in her right be- 
came Earl of Menteith. The second son. Sir John 
Stewart of Ruskie, who was also known as Sir John 
de Menteith, appears in history as the betrayer of Will- 
iam Wallace, The story, much clouded by legend, says 
that Wallace was in hiding from the English King, 
who had offered rewards for his capture. Sir John's 
sister's son, who was in Wallace's service, warned 
his uncle of Wallace's purpose to meet Bruce on 
Glasgow Muir, whereupon Sir John sent out a spy to 
observe the house where Wallace lay, and surround- 
ing the cottage of Lumloch, captured him in his bed. 
Whether betrayal is the correct description of Sir 
John's action is questionable. Treachery on the p^rt 
of a fellow countryman, and an old comrade in arms, 
undoubtedly adds romance to the capture of the na- 
tional hero, but as a matter of fact, Sir John was at 
that time actually in the service of the English King, 

21 



22 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

and held the responsible office of Governor of Dum- 
barton Castle. It is possible he only performed a dis- 
agreeable duty. 

The fourth Steward, Alexander, also had a younger 
son, known as Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl. From 
his father, he received the Barony of Garlics, and is 
thus described in Nisbet's Heraldry : "Sir John Stew- 
art of Bonkyl, second son of Alexander, High Stew- 
ard of Scotland, born in the year 1246." He married 
Margaret, "the heiress of Bonkyl, a virgine of great 
ibeauties." In 1292, he was one of the auditors for 
Robert the Bruce, and his name appears second in 
the sixteen hundred or more names in the Ragman 
Roll, the preceding name being that of James Stewart, 
his elder brother the High Steward. Sir John fought 
with Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk, and with him 
were the men of Bute, who were known as the Lord 
High Steward's Brandanes. 

"Thare Jhon Stwart a-pon fute 
With him the Brandanys thare of Bute." 

The Brandanes were almost wholh^ slain in the Battle, 
and Sir Jolui, the "braw and worthy Knycht," as Blind 
Harry calls him, was also killed. A monument to 
his memory at Falkirk states, "Here lies a Scottish 
hero. Sir John Stewart, killed at the Battle of Falkirk, 
22 July. T298." He had seven sons, upon each of 
whom Robert the Bruce bestowed honors and estates, 
and from whom many noble and ancient families de- 
scended. 

The eldest of the seven sons, Sir Alexander Stewart, 
of Bonkyl succeeded, and his son. Sir John, was, in 
1327, created Earl of Angus, after the forfeiture of 
de Umphraville. He died in December, 1331, leaving 
an only son Thomas, Earl of Angus, whose son, also 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 23 

Thomas, the third Earl of Angus of the name of Stew- 
art, died in 1377 without issue, when the title devolved 
upon his sister, Lady Margaret Stewart. She mar- 
ried, as her second husband, William, first Earl of 
Douglas, by whom she was the mother of George de 
Douglas, granted the Earldom of Angus by King 
Robert II, in 1389. 

The second son of Sir John of Bonkyl, was known 
as Sir Alan Stewart of Dreghorn in Ayrshire. With 
two other brothers he was killed at the Battle of 
Halidon Hill in 1333. He left a son Sir Alexander of 
Darnley, who died in 1372, whose third son, also Sir 
Alexander of Darnley, died in 1404, leaving an eldest 
son. Sir John Stewart of Darnley, knighted in 1383 
and killed at Orleans, 1429. From him descended the 
Earls and Dukes of Lennox. Henry Stewart, Lord 
Darnley, eldest surviving son of Matthew, Earl of 
Lennox, and husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, was 
the fifth in descent from Sir John of Darnley. From 
Sir William Stewart, a younger brother of Sir John of 
Darnley, are descended the Earls of Galloway and 
their cadets, among whom are the Stuarts of Castle- 
milk. Sir William is more fully referred to later, his 
son having married the heiress of Dalswinton. 

The third son of Sir John of Bonkyl, Sir Walter 
Stewart of Dalswinton, received for his services to 
Robert the Bruce a grant of the lands of Dalswinton, 
which had been forfeited by the Comyns. The Barony 
of Garlics, conferred on his grandfather, Alexander, 
fourth High Steward, by King Alexander III, for his 
services in defeating Hakon at the Battle of Largs, 
in 1263, was also granted to Sir Walter. He was 
succeeded by his son, Sir John Stewart of Dalswinton, 
who was captured by the English at the Battle of 
Neville's Cross in 1346. His son Sir Walter, left ats 



24 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

only child and heiress, Marion Stewart of Dalswinton, 
who, in 1396, married Sir John Stewart, elder son of 
Sir William Stewart. This Sir William figures in dif- 
ferent records as, "de Jedworth," "de Tevitdale," and 
"de Foresta," and, as already mentioned, was the 
younger son of Sir Alexander Stewart of Darnley. 
Sir William is mentioned by Froissart as one of the 
Scottish leaders at Otterburn in 1388, and was killed 
by Hotspur, when a prisoner, after the Battle of 
Homildon, in 1402. 

The three brothers. Sir John Stewart of Daldon, fifth 
son. Sir Robert Stewart of Daldowie, sixth son, and 
Sir Flugh Stewart, seventh son of Sir John of BonkyU 
accompanied Edward Bruce on his expedition to Ire- 
land. Sir John of Daldon was later killed at the Battle 
of Halidon Hill ; from Sir Robert's grandson, Sir Alan 
Steuart who died in 1444, spring the Steuarts of Allan- 
ton ; Sir Hugh died unmarried. 

The records relating to the descendants of Sir James 
Stewart, the fourth son of Sir John of Bonkyl, are of 
particular interest. Robert the Bruce granted him a 
charter of the lands of Peristoun and Warwickhill, in 
the district of Cunningham, Ayrshire. He was at the 
Battle of Bannockburn, 1314, and was killed at Hali- 
don Hill in 1333, with his brothers. Sir Alan and 
Sir John. Lord Hailes in his Annals points out, that 
"At Halidon two Stewarts fought, the one Alan of 
Dreghorn, the paternal ancestor of Charles I, and the 
other, James, his brother, the maternal ancestor of 
Oliver Cromwell." Alan of Dreghorn was, as has been 
mentioned, the ancestor of Henry Stewart, Lord Darn- 
ley, father of James VT and I, while Cromwell's mother 
was said to be descended from the Stewarts of Ely. 
Lord Hailes was of opinion that the latter family came 
from Sir James Stewart of Peristoun, through the 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 25 

Rosyth family; but that Cromwell took descent from 
the Stewarts has been denied, more especially by 
Rye in the "Genealogist." Sir James of Peristoun 
left three sons, Sir John, who died without male is- 
sue; Sir Alan who had a son, Sir John, who died 
without issue ; and Sir Robert. 

Sir Robert Stewart was designed of Innermeath, 
and had two sons Sir John and Sir Robert, the 
elder of whom, Sir John Stewart, was ancestor of 
the Clan Stewart of Appin, referred to more fully in 
the next chapter. Sir John married, about 1386, Iso- 
bel, the younger daughter and co-heiress of John de 
Ergadia, Lord of Lorn ; and Sir Robert his brother 
married Janet, her elder sister. In 1388, Sir Robert 
and his wife Janet resigned their portion of the land? 
of Lorn in favor of Sir John, who also received from 
Robert II a confirmatory charter of Lorn. Sir John 
Stewart thus succeeded to the estates of the ancient 
family of the MacDougals of Lorn, and quartered the 
lymphad, or galley, of Lorn with his paternal coat 
of arms. He had five sons, Robert his successor; 
Archibald ; Sir James, called the Black Knight of 
Lorn ; Alexander, ancestor of the Stewarts of Grand- 
tully; and William. 

To mention first Sir James, the second son, the 
Black Knight of Lorn. He married, in 1439, the Lady 
Joan Beauport, eldest daughter of John, Marquess 
of Dorset, granddaughter of John of Gaunt, and widow 
of James I. The Black Knight of Lorn was at this 
time closely allied to the house of Douglas, and Sir 
Alexander Livingston, who, with Crichton the Chan- 
cellor, was in control of the affairs of the kingdom, 
became alarmed at the probable accession of power 
to that great family. Seeing that the Black Knight, 
as husband of the Queen Mother, who was custodian 



26 History of the Stewart or Smart Family 

of the person of the young King James II, might 
insist on a principal share in the direction of the King, 
Livingston threw him and his brother William into 
prison, and confined the Queen Mother to her private 
apartments until she signed a deed surrendering the 
control of the king. After his release Sir James went 
abroad, where he died, leaving three sons, John, Earl 
of Athole ; Sir James Stewart, called "Hearty James," 
created Earl of Buchan, in 1466; and Andrew, Bishop 
of Moray. 

Sir John Stewart, the eldest son of the Black Knight 
of Lorn, was created Earl of Athole in 1457, and, in 
1460, obtained from his half brother, James II, a 
charter of the lordship of Balveny, in portion with 
Margaret Douglas, known as the Fair Maid of Gallo- 
way, daughter of the Earl of Douglas. His son, and 
successor, John, was killed at Flodden. The next Earl, 
also John, was noted for his great hospitality and 
princely style of living and died in 1542. Dorothea, 
the daughter and heiress of the fifth Earl married 
William Murray, Earl of Tullibardine, who, in 1626, 
resigned the Earldom of Tullibardine in favor of Sir 
Patrick Murray, on condition of the revival of the 
Earldom of Athole in his wife and her descendants. 
The Earldom thus passed to the Murray line. 

Hearty James, the second son of the Black Knight, 
obtained, in 1466, the title Earl of Buchan, and, in 
1471, on the fall of Lord Boyd, was made High Cham- 
berlain of Scotland. He died about 1500. His son 
and grandson both succeeded to the title. John Stew- 
art, the eldest son of the latter, had a daughter, Chris- 
tian Stewart, who succeeded to the title, and married 
a Douglas. 

To return to Sir Robert Stewart, the eldest son of 
Sir John of Innermeath and Lorn. On the death of 



History of the Stewart or Stvxirt Family 27 

his father Sir Robert became Lord of Lorn and Inner- 
meath, and married, about 1409, Margaret the fourth 
daughter of Robert, first Duke of Albany. His eldest 
son and successor. Sir John Stewart, Lord of Lorn and 
Innermeath, had three daughters, who married, Isobel 
to Colin Campbell, first Earl of Argyll ; Margaret, to 
Sir Colin Campbell of Glenurchy; and Marion, to 
Arthur Campbell of Ottar. There is some question 
as to the order of birth of the three daughters, and of 
the manner in which the Lordship of Lorn passed to 
the Argyll family; but by the marriage of these 
daughters the Lordship' of Lorn became vested in the 
Earls of Argyll. Sir John also had, by a daughter 
of Mac Laren of Ardveitch, a son Dugald, the founder 
of the Clan Appin Stewarts referred to in the next 
chapter. 

Turning next to the younger sons of Robert II, 
the first of the Stewart kings, we find that the most 
notable of such sons by his first wife Elizabeth Mure 
were Robert, Earl of Fife and later Duke of Albany, 
and Alexander the Wolf of Badenoch. 

Robert Stewart, first Duke of Albany was the third 
son of Robert II by his first wife. The name Albany 
is probably derived from the Pictish word Alban, 
meaning the superior height, and in early times was 
the appellation of the whole island. The Scottish 
highlanders called themselves "Gael Albinn." The 
word however later came to mean the mountainous 
district comprising App'in and Glenurchy in Argyll- 
shire, Athole and Breadalbane in Perthshire, and part 
of Lochaber in Invernessshire. Robert Stewart was 
born in 1339, and in 1371 was created Earl of Fife. 
In 1389, in consequence of the advanced age of 
his father, the King, and the bodily infirmity of hijs 
elder brother, the Earl of Carrick, afterwards Robert 



28 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

III, who had been rendered lame in early youth 
through the kick of a horse, Robert, Earl of Fife, was 
appointed Governor of the Kingdom. In April, 1390, 
his father Robert II died, and his elder brother John, 
succeeded to the throne under the name of Robert 
III, that of John being considered unfortunate. The 
new king allowed the management of the kingdom 
to remain in the hands of the Earl of Fife, but the 
king's son, Prince David, now Earl of Carrick and heir 
apparent, compelled his retirement, and got himself 
named Regent. Up to this time the title of Duke had 
not been in use in Scotland, but at a meeting between 
the Earl of Fife and Prince David, Earl of Carrick, 
with the English John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, 
the English nobleman claimed certain precedence from 
his superior title. This was not relished by the Prince 
and his uncle, and the first introduction of the ducal 
title into Scotland was the consequence, the Earl of 
Carrick being created Duke of Rothesay, and the Earl 
of Fife becoming Duke of Albany. The Duke of 
Rothesay was of wild and dissipated habits, his levity 
of conduct giving much offense, and in 1402 occurred 
his tragic death, the guilt for which is generally 
attached to Albany. The historian, Boece, after tell- 
ing of the death of the Prince's mother, the Queen, 
proceeds, "Be quhais deith succedit gret displesir to 
hir son, David Duk of Rothesay ; for during hir life 
he was haldin in virtews and honest occupatioun, eftir 
hir deith he began to rage in all maner of insolence." 
Boece tells how the King sent letters to his brother, 
the Duke of Albany, to "intertene his said son the 
Duk of Rothesay and to leir him honest and civil 
maners." According to tradition, Albany seems to have 
"leired" him manners by the following method. 
"The Duk of Albany tuk the Duk of Rothesay and 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 29 

brocht him to Falkland and inclusit him in the tour 
thairof without ony meit or drink." In fact, starved 
him to death. After Rothesay's death Albany was 
given full sway by the feeble king, but roused to a 
suspicion of his ambitious designs, as next heir to the 
crown if the king's children should be displaced, the 
king sent his only surviving son, James, then in his 
eleventh year, to France for safety. On the passage 
the ship was captured by the English, and the Prince 
imprisoned in the Tower of London. Robert III died 
of a broken heart, and Albany was confirmed by Par- 
liament, in the Regency. He continued to administer 
the affairs of the kingdom until his death, which took 
place at Stirling Castle on the 3rd September, 1420, 
at the age of eighty-one. 

His son, Murdoch Stewart, second Duke of Albany, 
was known during his father's lifetime as the Earl 
of Fife. Taken prisoner at the Battle of Homildon 
in 1402, he was exchanged for Henry Percy, Duke of 
Northumberland, and on the death of his father, in 
1420, in the absence of James I, succeeded as Governor. 
Upon King James' return and coronation at Scone, the 
Duke pierformed the ceremony of installing him on 
the throne. He claimed this privilege as Earl of Fife, 
successor of Macduff the conqueror of Macbeth. After 
James I was in power, considering the Albany faction 
a cause of danger, he, in 1425, ordered the arrest of 
the Duke, and of his younger son Alexander. The 
eldest son of Albany, Walter, had already been im- 
prisoned on the Bass Rock. There is no record of 
any charge against Albany and his sons, but Walter 
the eldest son was executed before Stirling Castle, 
on 24th May, 1425, and the next day Albany himself, 
his son Alexander, and the aged Earl of Lennox 
shared a similar fate on the Heading Hill. The 



30 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

youngest son, James, escaped to the Highlands and 
collected a band of followers, sacked Dumbarton, and 
killed, among others, the king's uncle Sir John Stewart 
of Dundonald, known as the Red Stewart. He then 
escaped to Ireland, where he married one of the Mac 
Donalds, their son, James, being the ancestor of the 
Stewarts of Ardvoirlich. The king took vengeance on 
those of James' followers captured in Scotland, caus- 
ing them, when alive, to be torn limb from limb by 
horses. 

The Wolf of Badenoch is the name by which the 
fourth son of Robert H is best known in history. 
Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, was nearly seven 
feet in height, of enormous strength, and his atrocities 
and almost regal hospitalities give a fascination to an 
historic figure. The outrage which, in 1390, gained 
for the Wolf everlasting infamy, was the raid on 
Forres and Elgin. He had no children by his wife, 
and had left her, to live with another, Mariota, a 
daughter of Athyn. By her he had several sons, and 
his Countess appealed to the Bishop's of Moray and 
Ross for redress. In revenge the Wolf seized upon 
some lands belonging to the Bishop of Morav, who 
excommunicated him. The Wolf, now thoroughly 
exasperated, sent round the Fiery Cross and gather- 
ing his fierce followers, called by Wyntoun, "Wyld, 
wykkyd Hielandmen," he swooped down on Forres, 
which he burned, with the Church and the Arch- 
deacon's house. He then proceeded to Elgin, where he 
arrived on the feast of the Blessed Abbot Botolph, 
in June, 1390. He burned the Cathedral city, the 
parish Church, the Maison Dieu, and eighteen of the 
houses of the Canons, "and what is most grievously 
to be lamented, the noble and highly adorned Church 
of Moray, the delight of the country and ornament of 
the kingdom, with all the books, charters and goods 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 31 

of the countr}'- placed therein." The story is, that 
the indemnification obtained by the See was that 
the Wolf stood for three days barefooted at the 
great gate of Elgin Cathedral. This must, however, 
have been later, for so autocratic and savage was the 
Wolf, during the greater part of his life, that he 
governed a practically independent little kingdom. But, 
if tradition can be relied on, in spite of the record of his 
life, he died in the very richest odour of sanctity in the 
year 1394, and was buried in Dunkeld Cathedral. He 
had five natural sons by Mariota, the daughter of 
Athyn ; Alexander ; Sir Andrew of Sandhauch ; Walter ; 
James ; and Duncan. The Earldom of Buchan fell 
into the hands of the Crown, and was conferred, in 
1406, on his cousin John Stewart. 

The eldest natural son, Alexander Stewart, had a 
more brilliant career as a political and military free 
lance than even the Wolf, and as commander on the 
bloody field of Harlaw, in 141 1, stayed the victorious 
and ravaging progress of Donald, Lord of the Isles, 
and his Highland host. Donald of the Isles, to 
maintain his claim to the Earldoro of Ross, with 
"Fifty thousand Hielanmen, A marching to Harlaw," 
invaded the country south of the mountains, with the 
intention of sacking Aberdeen, and was met at Harlaw 
by Alexander Stewart, then Earl of Mar, at the head 
of the Lowlanders. The "Hielanmen" lost more than 
nine hundred men, and the Lowlanders five hundred; 
but neither side could claim actual superiority in the 
battle. As the old ballad has it, 

"On Monandy at mornin'. 

The battle it began, 
On Saturday at gloamin' 

Ye'd scarce tell wha had wan. 
And sic a weary buryin' 



32 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

The like ye never saw 
As there was the Sunday after that 
On the muirs down by Harlaw." 

Donald's purpose was however frustrated, and the 
victory claimed by the Earl of Mar has been declared 
by the historian Burton to have done more for the 
civilization of Scotland than even the victory of 
Bannockburn. Regarding Alexander Stewart's mar- 
riage to the Countess of Mar, the story is told that 
he stormed her Castle of Kildrummie, wed her by 
violence or persuasion, and carried off the Earldom 
from the lawful heirs. But the story goes on to 
tell, that in order to palliate his conduct he later pre- 
sented himself at the Castle gate of Kildrummie, 
and surrendered to the Countess the castle and all 
therein, in testimony of which he delivered the keys 
into her hand. The Countess, holding the keys in 
her hand, then chose Alexander for her husband, 
and on free marriage gave him her castle and the Earl- 
dom of Mar. The Countess died without issue. From 
141 1 until his death, Alexander Stewai^, Earl of 
Mar, was one of the foremost men in Scotland. Bril- 
liant and versatile he became one of Scotland's great- 
est captains, statesmen and patriots. Upon his death, 
in 1435, the title and estates reverted to the Crown. 
The ancient title of Earl of Athole was conferred on 
Walter Stewart, the second son of Robert II, by his 
second wife Euphemia Ross. He was engaged in 
the conspiracy of his kinsman, Sir Robert Graham, 
against James I, one of the objects of whichi was the 
placing of the crown on the head of Sir Robert Stew- 
art, the Earl's grandson, who was Chamberlain to the 
king. James I went from Edinburgh to Perth to keep 
Christmas, 1436, with the Black Friars at Perth. On 
his wav thither, at the Water of Leith, he was met 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 33 

by a Highland wise-wife, who told him, "My Lord 
the King, if you cross this water you will never return 
again alive." The King, however, disregarded her 
warning. While in Perth, the King took up residence 
in the Abbey of the Black Friars, and on the night 
appointed, 20th February, 1437, Sir Robert Stewart, 
the Chamberlain, placed planks across the moat of the 
Abbey, also unlocking the gates and doors of the 
Abbey, and Graham and his followers, amounting to 
nearly three hundred men, entered the Abbey. The 
King, in his night robe and slippers, was conversing 
with the Queen and her ladies before retiring. He 
had spent the evening with the nobles and ladies of the 
Court, the Earl of Athole and Sir Robert Stewart 
among them. The Highland sorceress again attempted 
to warn the King, but was refused admittance owing 
to the lateness of the hour. The conspirators were 
heard approaching, and the King guessed that they 
were coming to murder him. He wrenched up a 
plank in the floor, and hid in the vault below, used as a 
sewer. The Queen and her ladies attempted to hold the 
door of the room shut, and Catherine Douglas thrust 
her arm across the door in the place of the bar which 
had been removed. Soon the brave Douglas' arm was 
broken, and the conspirators rushed into the room, but, 
not finding the King, would have left the apartment 
had not the King turned impatient, and called to one 
of the ladies to help him out of the hiding place. Then 
two of the murderers leapt into the vault, but the King 
though unarmed, put up so brave a fight that Graham 
was compelled to spring down and thrust his sword 
through the King's body. Queen Joanna made so 
strict a search for the assassins that within a month 
most of them were in prison. Sir Robert Graham 
was tortured and executed ; the Earl of Athole be- 



34 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

headed, being first set upon the pillory, his head en- 
circled with a red hot crown on which was inscribed, 
"The King of Traitors" ; while the flesh of Sir Robert 
Stewart was torn from his body with pincers. 

The fourth Stewart King, James II, had three 
younger sons, Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany, 
whose son and successor died in France without law- 
ful issue ; David Stewart, Earl of Moray, who died 
young; and John Stewart, Earl of Mar, who was 
murdered in Craigmillar Castle. 

The two younger sons of James III were, James 
Stewart, Duke of Ross and Archbishop of St. An- 
drews, who died at the early age of 28, and John 
Stewart, Earl of Mar. 




CHAPTER III. 

WING to the fact that the Chief or head 
of the Stewarts was also the occupant of 
the Throne, the relationship between the 
various branches or members of the family 
and the head of the house somewhat differed from the 
usual ties connecting the clansmen with their chieftain. 
The distinctive quality of the clan was, in a consider- 
able degree, lost in a more general national sentiment. 
The family, however, had their distinguishing badge 
and tartan. The badge of the original Stewarts was 
the darag, or oak, the superstitious Highlanders fore- 
seeing ill fortune from the choice of an emblem not an 
evergreen. The cluaran, or thistle, became the badge 
of the Royal Stuarts and the national emblem. 

"Hail ! Emblem proud to Scotland long endeared, 
Begirt with threat'ning points which never failed. 
When England's sons her thorn-couched spears 

upreared 
Thou shook'st thy bearded head and still pre- 
vailed." 

The usual family tartan is the well known red-colored 
pattern commonly known as the Royal Stuart Tartan, 
The effect of a large body of men crossing a hill, 
clothed in the red Stuart tartan, contrasting with the 
dark colored heath, has been described "as if the hill 
were on fire." Four other tartans belonging to the 
family are known as. The Dress Tartan, containing 
more white than red ; The Old Tartan ; The Hunting 
Tartan ; and the Bonnie Prince Charlie Tartan. 
The Stewarts of Appin, the Clan Appin, together 

35 



3G History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

with the Athole branches of the family, were con- 
sidered in the Highlands as forming the Clan Stewart. 
The district of Appin forms the north-west corner of 
Arg_) llshire, a small rivulet, called Con Ruagh or red 
bog, dividing the lands of the Stewarts of Appin from 
the Campbells. The Stewart Chief of the Clan Appin 
was known as Mac Iain Stiubhart nan Appin, and the 
Ettrick Shepherd's ballad, "The Stewarts of Appin," 
runs thus, 

"I sing of a land that was famous of yore, 
The land of green Appin, the ward of the flood, 
Where every grey cairn that broods over the 

shore, 
Marks graves of the royal, the valiant, or good. 
The land where the strains of grey Ossian were 

framed. 
The land of fair Selma, and reign of Fingal, 
And late of a race, that with tears must be named, 
The noble Clan Stewart, the bravest of all." 

The first of the Chiefs of Appin was Dugald Stewart, 
who, as already told, was the son of Sir John Stewart, 
Lord of Lorn and Innermeath, by a daughter of Mac- 
Laren of Ardveich, 

In 145 1, Sir John executed a deed granting to John 
MacDougal of Lorn and his son John Keir MacDougal, 
certain lands, including the Castle of Dunolly and the 
guardianship and pupilage of his heirs. John Mac- 
Dougal, was Sir John's nearest relative of the family 
of Mac Dougal, as well as chief of the clan, and it is 
possible that the Lord of Lorn desired by his gener- 
osity to his kinsman, and the trust he reposed in him, 
to secure his support and that of the clan MacDougal, 
for his youthful son, Dugald, then about six years old, 
whom he intended to make his heir. We have seen 
that Dugald's mother was of the clan MacLaren. Sir 
John Stewart had been at the tryst at Crieff, it being 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 37 

customary for the chiefs to attend these trysts, where 
many affairs of business and politics were arranged, 
and, on his return, he met in Glenfillan with a wedding 
party from Ardveich. He joined the party and became 
enamoured of the daughter of the house. Dugald, their 
son, was born in 1445, and records say that he resided 
at Ardveich until 1463, when his father sent him a 
message directing him to come to DunstaflFnage Castle 
with his mother. They set out as bridal p*arty, with 
pipes and banners. The MacLaren tradition records 
that as Dugald was on the way to Dunstaflfnagie 
with his mother and the bridal party, he was met by 
an aged Highland woman, who had the gift of second 
sight, and who asked him, "Whither are you bound 
for today?" to which Dugald replied, "I am going to 
receive some justice." To this the aged dame an- 
swered, " I have had a dream that, as you have been 
for eighteen years known as Dugald, the illegitimate 
of Ardveich, so will you for twenty eight years be 
known as the head of the Stewarts of Lorn." It was 
in 1469 that Dugald's uncle Walter, made over to the 
Earl of Argyll his alleged claim to Lorn, and Dugald, 
till his death in 1497, was the acknowledged head of 
the Stewarts of Lorn, a period of twenty-eight years. 
Shortly before the time Dugald and his mother set 
out for DunstaflFnage, Alan MacDougal, an illegiti- 
mate son of MacDougal, had joined a conspiracy in 
opposition to his brother, John Keir MacDougal, chief 
of the clan, and who had remained loyal to the 
crown. It became well known that Sir John Stew- 
art of Lorn had sent for the daughter of MacLaren 
of Ardveich in order that their marriage might legiti- 
mate their son. The possession of Lorn by a just 
and powerful noble like Sir John, and the probability 
of his being succeeded by the youthful Dugald, backed 



88 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

by his mother's clan, was no doubt a great obstacle 
to the plans of Alan MacDougal and his confederates ; 
and according to the traditions of the MacLaren fam- 
ily, Alan stabbed Sir John in DunstafTnage Castle 
shortly before the arrival of the bridal party. The 
tradition of the Stewarts is, that the murder was 
committed when Sir John was actually on his way 
from the Castle to the Chapel, which was close at hand, 
where the marriage was to be performed. The mur- 
derers fled, and Dugald would have pursued, but the 
priest pointed out that no time was to be lost in 
having the marriage completed, as Sir John was mor- 
tally wounded. The rite was accordingly performed, 
the priest assisting the dying Sir John to place the 
ring on the bride's finger. Alan MacDougal got pos- 
session of Dunstaffnage Castle, whether in the con- 
fusion consequent on the murder, or after the battle 
with Dugald at Leac-a-dotha, is not known. Dugald 
Stewart's succession, in 1463 was not a peaceable one. 
Fie hastened to Strathearn and Balquidder to raise 
the MacLarens, and having been joined by his father's 
retainers and followers from Lorn, marched to Leac- 
a-dotha, at the head of Loch Awe. A battle ensued 
in which Dugald was defeated after a fierce and bloody 
fight. Dugald retreated with his followers into Upper 
Lorn, or Appin. Many of the Stewarts then made 
the exodus known as the "Inveich mor," or pfreat 
flitting, from the southern part of Lorn to Upper 
Lorn or Appin, following the fortunes of Dugald, as 
chief of the clan. Reinforced by these clansmen, Du- 
gald avenged his father's death at a battle, called the 
battle of Stale, in which Alan MacDougal, his father's 
murderer was killed. 

A compromise was now entered into, by which 
Dugald's uncle, Walter, retained Innermeath ; Lorn 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 39 

was retained by Argyll, who gave Glenurchy his 
share ; and Dugald was established in Appin. Though 
Dugald Stewart by this enforced compromise gave 
up the Lordship of Lorn, his descendants were recog- 
nized as representing the noble house of Stewart of 
Lorn, and continued to bear the arms of Lorn. Du- 
gald held his lands of Appin without molestation, 
and in 1497, or 1498, led his followers to the aid of 
the MacLarens against the MacDonalds of Kepp^och. 
In the battle which ensued Dugald was killed. He 
had married a daughter of MacDougal of Nether Lorn, 
a marriage probably arranged to stop the blood feud 
between the two families, and had three sons. The 
eldest, Duncan his successor, never married, and was 
succeeded by the second son, Alan, who with five 
sons accompanied King James IV to the disastrous 
field of Flodden. Alan died- at an advanced age about 
the year 1562. He had married a daughter of Cam- 
eron of Lochiel, and had five sons, Duncan the fourth 
of Appin ; John, of whom the first Stewarts of Strath- 
garry; Dugald, of whom the Stewarts of Achnacone; 
James, of whom Fasnacloich ; and Alexander, of whom 
Invernahyle. Duncan married Janet Gordon; and had 
one son, John, called from his complexion and his 
maternal descent, Gordonich-baan, the fair Gordon. 
He married, first, Katherine, daughter of John Camp- 
bell (Gorm), first of Lochnell, by whom he had one 
son, Duncan his successor; and secondly, a daughter 
of MacDougal of Muidart who bore him a son John, 
afterwards of Ardsheal. Duncan succeeded his father 
in 1595. He was succeeded by his son, also Duncan, 
who was followed by his son, again Duncan, who took 
the field at the head of the Clan Stewart to join the 
Marquess of Montrose at the Battle of Inverlochy, 
164s, where the Clan behaved with great valor, in- 



40 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

spired, as Hogg says, by their loyalty to the head of 
the House of Stewart, and by their desire to avenge 
the many injuries they had sustained from Argyll, 
who was utterly defeated with the loss of fifteen hun- 
dred men. 

The Marching Song of the Clan Stewart is said to 
tiave been first used when the Clan was marching to 
Inverloch y, and has been translated as follows : 

"The heath clad Ben we'll soon ascend, 
Through Glen Laoigh we'll soon descend, 
Our points of steel we'll swiftly send, 

Thro' every loon that bars us. 
We will up and march away. 
We will up and march away, 
We will up and march away, 

Daring let of all men. 

O'er the hills we'll speed along, 
Through Glencoe unwearied on, 
Our King the burden of our song. 
Asking leave of no man. 

To Glengarry and Lochiel 
Ever with us, true and leal ; 
Keppoch, too, who seeks our weal. 
Is there in spite of all men. 

MacPhersons come, in deeds not small, 
MacKenzies also at our call. 
Whose battle frenzy will appal. 
And fill our foes with awe then. 

MacGregors, fierce when man to man. 
Join with the Ro}al Stewart clan; 
Blow up the pip€s, march proudly on, 

Daring let of all men. 
We will up and march away, 
We will up and march away. 
We will up and march away. 
Daring lee of all men." 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 41 

The Chief of Appin was forfaulted in person and 
estate, but the forfeiture was, of course, cancelled on 
the accession of Charles II. He married Jean, daughter 
of Campbell of Glenurchy, but had no male issue, his 
lands and the Chiefship passing on his death, about 
1685, to his nephew Robert Stewart. Robert joined 
Dundee,, and is believed to have himself fought at 
Killiecrankie, 1689, although the Clan did not come 
up in time for the Battle. He was attainted, taken 
prisoner by the Governor of Inverloch}', and sent 
prisoner to Glasgow, but was released. He was, 
however, at the famous hunting party of the Earl of 
Mar, 27th August, 171 5, on the Braes of Mar, and 
took the field with two hundred and fifty men in sup- 
port of James Stuart, the Chevalier St. George, He 
fought with the Clan at the Battle of Sheriffmuir on 
the 13th November, was for a second time attainted, 
but took refuge abroad, where he died between 1730 
and 1739, the date is in doubt, and was succeeded by 
his son, Dugald to whom the estate was restored. Du- 
gald v/as a boy of tender years when Prince Charles 
Edward unfurled the Ro al Standard in Glenfinnan in 
1745, and the Clan, numbering four hundred broad- 
swords, was consequently led by Charles Stewart the 
fifth of Ardsheal. Dugald, was the last Baron of Appin ; 
he had no male issue, and, in 1765, sold the estate of 
Appin. The representation of the Stewarts of Lorn 
and Appin then devolved upon the head of the family 
of Stewart of Ardsheal. 

The first of Ardsheal was John Stewart, son of 
John, the fifth of Appin, born of his second wife, a 
daughter of MacDonald of Muidart. Duncan, second 
of Ardslieal, son of John, was steadfast in his lo alty 
to Char1e<^ I and the Stuart cause, and fought as an 
officer with the Clan Appin which followed the Mar- 



42 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

quess of Montrose. A story connected with CharleiS 
Stewart, the fifth of Ardsheal, describes him as a man 
of great personal strength and a fine swordsman. In 
an encounter with Rob Roy in Balquidder, he wounded 
the celebrated freebooter, who thereupon threw his 
sword into Lochvoil, declaring that it was the first 
time it had failed him, and that Ardsheal was the 
first man who had drawn blood from him. In 1745, 
Stewart of Ardsheal led the Clan Appin when they 
went out with Bonnie Prince Charlie. The Stewarts 
of Clan Appin fought at Prestonpans, Clifton, Falkirk 
and Culloden, and many gave their lives for the 
Stuart Prince. Chambers sa}s that the Clan suffered 
at Culloden more than any of the Highland Clans. 
The Ardsheal family alone lost eight killed and three 
wounded at this Battle. After the fight, Charles 
Stewart of Ardsheal succeeded in reaching Appin, 
where he lay concealed in a cave, still called Ardsheal's 
Cave, being supplied with food by a little girl who 
daily drove out a few lambs on the hill, and watched 
her opportunity to communicate with her Chief. He 
eventuall}^ escaped to France, where he died in 1757. 
Alexander, his son succeeded him, but died without 
issue, being followed by his brother Duncan, who 
fought for the Crown in the American War of Inde- 
pendence, and obtained the restoration of his paternal 
estate. From him the succeeding heads of the family 
descended. 

The Stewarts of Strathgarry descended from John 
Stewart, second son of Alan Stewart, third of Appin. 
John received from his father the lands of Strath- 
garr^-, in Athole, after the return of Alan and his 
five sons from Flodden, in 1513. Stewart of Strath- 
garry, about the end of the sixteenth centurv, took 
possession of lands at Rannoch which had been held 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 43 

by a MacDonald, and a party of the Clan MacDonald 
surprised Strathgarry, whom they slew for dispossess- 
ing their kinsman. At a meeting of the Stewarts of 
Appin, Athole and Balquidder, at the Bridge of Kelt- 
ney, they agreed to avenge his death. His widow 
also procured letters of fire and sword against the 
MacDonalds which she obtained by going to Stirling-, 
and showing her husband's bloody shirt to the Privy 
Council. The MacDonalds were surrounded by the 
Stewarts, and a number killed, among whom were 
the Laird of Glencoe and his brother. Their heads 
were cut off as proof to the Privy Council that their 
orders had been duly carried out. The messenger 
who carried the heads to Stirling placed them in a 
barrel, which he occasionally shook, and as the heads 
knocked against each other, cried in Gaelic, "Can't 
you agree?" In the eighteenth century the Strath- 
garry lands were sold to a cadet of the Invernahyle 
branch of the family. 

Achnacone means the "field of dogs," and was an 
old hunting seat of the ancient Lords of Lorn. Du- 
g-ald Stewart, first of Achnacone, was third son of 
Alan Stewart, third of Appin. The lands were given 
to Dugald by his father, soon after Flodden. 

The Fasnacloich branch of the family also descended 
from a son of Alan Stewart, third of Appin. James 
Stev/art, his fourth son, received the lands of Fas- 
nacloich from his father after their return from Flod- 
den. Fasnacloich is situated at the foot of Glen 
Creran, and the name signifies a field of stones or 
crags. Alexander Stewart, third son of John, the sixth 
of Fasnacloich, was present at Killiecrankie, 1689, 
also at Sheriffmuir in 171 5. He was too old, seventy- 
three, to join Prince Charles Edward in 1745, but 
took an active part in raising the Clan Appin. Charles 



44 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

Stewart, only son of Alexander, was attached to the 
person of the Prince as Purse Bearer, and was at 
Prestonpans, Falkirk and Culloden. James Stewart, 
eighth of Fasnacloich, was also present with the 
Clan Appin at Culloden, where two of the family 
were killed and four wounded. 

The first of Invernahyle, Alexander Stewart, called 
Tiochail, or the Peaceful, was the fifth and youngest 
son of Alan, third of Appin, and received from his 
father the lands of Invernahyle, so called from their 
situation at the mouth of the Hyle, on the return 
from Flodden. It is told that Alexander Stewart, 
early one summer morning, went to an island called 
Eilean-'n-Stalcair, and not apprehending any danger 
laid his Lochaber axe by his side. A deadly feud then 
existed between his family and the Campbells of 
Dunstaffnage, and this very morning Cailean Uaine, 
Green Colin, brother to Campbell of Dunstafifnage, 
landed on the island with a party of men. Cailean 
Uaine came suddenly upon Invernah\le, and seized 
hold of the axe, exclaiming, "This is a good axe, if 
it had a good handle to it." Alexander Stewart 
immediately replied, "Has it not that?" laying his 
hand on it. During the struggle which followed, 
Alexander was murdered by Colin's men. His son 
Donald was hidden by his nurse from his father's 
murderers, and brought up by her and her husband, 
the smith or armorer of the Clan MacDonald. Don- 
ald, as he grew up, was noted for his great strength, 
and became known as Donuill-nan-ord, or Donald 
of the Hammers. It is said, he could take in each 
hand one of the large hammers, each of which re- 
quired the full strength of an ordinary man, and 
wield both at the same time without cflfort. He 
could also dive in the river and bring up a salmon 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 45 

with his hands. He attacked Dunstaffnage, and after 
several fights Cailean Uaine and seven Campbells 
v^^ere killed. This caused another feud between the 
Campbells and the young Chief Donald, who con- 
tinued to make further attacks on the Clan Campbell. 

"Donald of the Smithy, the son of the Hammer 
Filled the banks of Lochawe with mourning and 
clamour." 

As the Chief of Appin, Alan Stewart, was a very 
old man, and his eldest son, Duncan, dead, the Clan 
Appin was led by Donald at the Battle of Pinkie, 
in 1547. On their homeward march passing through 
Menteith, the Clan found a wedding feast prepared 
in one of the houses of the Earl of Menteith's tenants. 
Being hungry, the Clan disposed of the feast, and 
were pursued by the Grahams, one of whom taunted 
the Stewarts. 

"Yellow haired Stewarts, of smartest deeds, 
Who could grab at the kale in your sorest needs." 

One of the Stewarts shot the rhymer with an arrow, 
replying, 

"If smartness of deeds is ours by descent 
Then I draw — and to piierce you this arrow is 
sent." 

A fight naturally followed in which the Earl of Men- 
teith and many of his men were killed. The family 
of Invernahyle was out both in 1715 and 1745, and 
in the Battle of Culloden had four killed and twelve 
wounded. 

The Stewarts of Athole consist almost entirely of 
the descendants, by his five illegitimate sons, of Sir 
Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, The Wolf of 
Badenoch, fourth son of Robert II by his first wife. 



46 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

One of his natural sons, Duncan, whose disposition 
was as ferocious as his father's, at the head of a large 
number of the clan, armed with sword and targe, 
came down from the range of hills which divides the 
counties of Aberdeen and Forfar, and began to devas- 
tate the countr}' and murder the inhabitants. Sir 
Walter Ogilvy, Sheriff of Angus, Sir Patrick Gray and 
Sir David Lindsay of Glenesk collected a force to 
repel them, and a desperate conflict took place near 
the water of Isla, in which the Stewarts were over- 
powered, and the greater part of them slain. 

Another of the Wolf of Badenoch's natural sons, 
James Stewart, was the ancestor of the family of 
Garth, from which proceed almost all the other Athole 
Stewarts. According to tradition, a battle is said to 
have been fought in Glenlyon, between the M'lvers, 
who claimed it as their territory, and Stewart of 
Garth, commonly called "The Fierce Wolf," which 
terminated in the utter defeat of the M'lvers, and 
their expulsion from the district. The possessions of 
the Athole Stewarts lay mainly on the north side of 
Loch Tay. 

The Stewarts of Ardvoirlich, Perthshire, descended 
from James Stewart, called James the Gross, fourth 
and only surviving son of Murdoch, Duke of Albany, 
Regent of Scotland. The third son of James the 
Gross, also James, was the immediate ancestor of the 
Ardvoirlich branch. A descendant, another James 
Stewart, rendered himself notorious by the assassina- 
tion of his friend, Lord Kilpont, son of the Earl of 
Airth and Menteith. Lord Kilpont, had joined the 
Marquess of Montrose in 1644. It is said, James 
Stewart wishing to ingratiate himself with the Coven- 
anters had formed a plan to slay Montrose, but wished 
the assistance of Lord Kilpont, who indignantly re- 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 47 

jected the proposal. Stewart alarmed lest Kilpont 
might report the matter, drew his dirk and killed 
him. This took place in Montrose's camp, near Collace, 
and Stewart fled and joined Argyll, then in arms 
against Montrose. Preserved at Ardvoirlich for cen- 
turies, a lump of pure white rock crystal bound with 
four bands of silver and known by the name of the 
Clach Dearg of Ardvoirlich, or Red Stone of Ard- 
voirlich, from its red tinge on being held to the 
light, was long considered to have magical properties, 
and a sure cure for cattle if they were given to drink 
the water in which the Clach Dearg had been dipped. 

The ancestor of the Stewarts of Grandtully, Perth- 
shire, was James Stewart of Peristoun and Warwick- 
hill, fourth son of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, second 
son of Alexander, the fourth Lord High Steward of 
Scotland. 

John Stewart, the first of Urrard, was a son of 
Robert Stewart of Fincastle, lineally descended from 
John Stewart, one of the progenitors of the Athole 
Stewarts, and fourth natural son of the Wolf of 
Badenoch, son of King Robert II. 

The first Baronet of Coltness was Sir James Stew- 
art, second son of James Stewart of Allanton. The 
third Baronet, Sir James Denham Steuart, having 
been introduced to Prince Charles Edward at Rome, 
joined the Prince on his arrival in Edinburgh in 1745. 
The Prince dispatched him on a mission to the French 
Court, where he was at the time of the Battle of 
Culloden. Being excepted in the Act of Indemnity, 
he resided abroad for eighteen years, returning to 
Scotland in 1763. 

The Stewarts of Drumin, Banffshire, and later of 
Belladrum, Invernessshire, trace their descent from 
Robert II. .Sir Walter Stewart of Strathaven was a 



48 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

natural son of Alexander, the Wolf of Badenoch, 4th 
son of the King, and was knighted at the Battle 
of Harlaw in 141 1. His son, Sir Walter Stewart, ob- 
tained the lands of Drumin, in 1471. 

The Stewarts of Binny descended from Sir Robert 
Stewart of Torbolton and Cruickston, second son of 
Walter, the third Steward of Scotland. They were 
previously designated of Torbane and Raiss, Halrig 
and Shawood. 

The Stewarts of Physgill and Glenturk, Wigtown- 
shire, descend from John Stewart, second son of Sir 
Alexander Stewart of Garlies. 

The family of Stewart, now Shaw-Stewart, of Black- 
hall and Greenock, Renfrewshire, took descent from 
Sir John Stewart, one of the natural sons of Robert 
III. From his father, the King, Sir John received 
charters of the lands of Ardgowan, Blackball and 
Auchingoun. Sir Archibald Stewart of Blackball, 
the seventh in descent from Sir John, was created a 
Baronet in 1667. 

The Stewarts of Glen Ogle are descendants of 
Appin ; the family of Tonderghie, Wigtownshire, is a 
branch of the noble house of Galloway ; and the old 
families of Baldonan, Annat, Gartnafuaroe, and the 
original Stewarts of Glenbuckie all descended from 
James Stewart, son of Murdoch, second Duke of 
Albany. 

The Balqiiidder Stewarts derived their origin from 
illegitimate branches of the Albany family. 

The Stewarts of Ballintoy took descent from 
Archibald Stewart of Largayan, who, in 1544, was an 
influential leader in the rebellion which Matthew* 
Stewart, Earl of Lennox organized in opposition to 
the Regency of Arran, during the reign of Mary, 
Queen of Scots. On the failure of that movement he 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 49 

was forfeited, and his lands sold. His sons emigrated 
to Ireland about the year 1560. James Stewart, one 
of the first settlers, left two sons, Ninian and David. 
The place of settlement is said to have been Dun- 
severick, from whence the family removed to Ballin- 
toy. The Stewarts of Tynne and Donegal emigrated 
from Scotland to Ireland shortly after this period, 
and the Stewarts of Drumbridge also descended from 
Scottish stock. Other branches of the family in Ire- 
land are mentioned in a later chapter. 

Steuart of AUanton, an ancient family in Lanark- 
shire, lineally descended from Sir Robert Stewart of 
Daldowie, sixth son of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, 
son of Alexander the fourth Lord High Steward of 
Scotland. Sir John bestowed, in 1290, the estate of 
Daldowie in Clydesdale on his son, Sir Robert, who 
fought at Bannockburn, and with three of his brothers. 
Sir Alan, Sir Walter and Sir Hugh, accompanied Ed- 
ward Bruce to Ireland in 13 15. From Alan Stewart 
of Daldowie, who was killed in 1385 in battle against 
the English, descended James Stewart of Allanton 
who had two sons. Sir Walter, born in 1606, and Sir 
James of Coltness, twice Lord Provost of Edinburgh. 
Sir Walter Stewart of Allanton married Margaret, 
daughter of Sir James Hamilton of Broomhill. It is 
recorded that Oliver Cromwell, in 1650, after the 
Battle of Dunbar, halted at Allanton House where he 
was hospitably entertained by Lady Stewart, and 
where he passed the night. Sir Walter, being a 
Royalist, took care to be out of the way, but Crom- 
well courteously inquired after him, and observed that 
his mother was of the Stewart family, so that he 
alwa- s felt a kindness for the name. The spelling 
Steuart seems to have been first used by William who 
succeeded his father Sir Walter Stewart, Kt., in 1672. 



50 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

The family name is now Seton-Steuart as told in a 
later chapter relating to the present heads of the 
various families. 

The ancestor of the branch of Steuart of Ballechin 
was Sir John Steuart of Sticks, in Glenquaich, Perth- 
shire, the natural son of King James II of Scotland. 
He received a charter of lands from King James III, 
dated nth December, i486, and a charter from James 
IV, dated ist August, 1494. His successor, William 
Steuart, died soon after his father, when the suces- 
sion devolved upon his brother, John Steuart, who, 
in 1556, acquired the various lands comprising the 
barony of Ballechin. 

The family of Steuart of Tanachie take descent 
from Andrew Steuart, the first of Tanachie son of Sir 
Walter Steuart, legitimated son of Sir Andrew Stew- 
art of Strathaven ; while the Auchlunkart estates came 
through Patrick Steuart who married his cousin Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Alexander Stewart of Auchlunkart, 
an estate which came into the family by marriage 
with the heiress of Innes of Auchlunkart. 

The family of Steuart of Dalguise, Perthshire de- 
scended from Sir John Stewart of Arntullie and Card- 
ne\ s, also designed of Dowallie, youngest natural son 
of King Robert II, by Marion de Cardney, daughter 
of John de Cardney of that ilk, and sister of Robert 
Cardney, Bishop of Dunkeld. Sir John Stewart was 
knighted at the coronation of King James I at Scone, 
in 1424. His descendant, John Steuart, seventh laird 
of Dalguise was out in the rising of 1715. 

The Stuarts of Inchbreck and Laithers, Aberdeen- 
shire, are descended from Andrew Stewart of Laur- 
encekirk in the Mearns, great-grandson of Murdoch, 
Duke of Albany, the grandson of Robert II. David 
Stewart the son of Andrew, was the first of Inch- 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 51 

breck, in 1547. He had a son, John, whose greaV 
grandson, William Stuart of Inchbreck, married Mar- 
garet the heiress both of David Guthrie of Kair and 
of Henry Guthrie of Halkerton. They had two sons, 
John Stuart, who succeeded to Inchbreck, and James 
Stuart who joined Prince Charles Edward in 1745, 
and after the Battle of CuUoden took refuge in France, 
where he entered the French service. 

Archibald Stuart, fourth son of the third Stuart 
Earl of Moray was the founder of the family of Stuart 
of Dunearn, Fife. 

The family of Stirling-Stuart of Castlemilk are de- 
scended from the ancient branch of Castlemilk. Sir 
John Stuart, the fifth Baronet of Castlemilk, died 
without male issue. His daughter, Jean Stuart mar- 
ried in 1 781, William Stirling of Keir, from whom the 
family of Stirling-Stuart descended. 

The noble house of Lennox descended from Sir 
John Stewart of Darnley, who was created Lord 
Darnley by James H, in 1445, and obtained the Earl- 
dom of Lennox from James HI, about 1481. 

The Galloway branch is descended from Sir John 
Stewart, younger son of Alexander, fourth Lord High 
Steward of Scotland, whose elder son, James, was an- 
cestor of the Royal House The direct ancestor of the 
branch was Sir William Stewart, who was made a 
Knight Banneret about 1385. His great-grandson, Sir 
Alexander Stewart, was designated of Garlics, which 
continued to be the chief title of the family, until a 
later Sir Alexander Stewart was, in 1623, created 
Earl of Galloway. 

Sliochd Aileen 'ic Rob, the sep>t of the Clan Stew- 
art commonly called the MacRobs, descended from a 
natural son of Robert Stewart, son of Dugald, first 



52 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

of Appin, This son's name was Alan, and the lands 
occupied by the MacRobs were situated at Glenduror, 
Lettermore and Acharn, in Duror. Towards the end 
of the eighteenth century many of the MacRobs emi- 
grated to America. 




CHAPTER IV. 

LTHOUGH it is not intended to relate in 
detail that which is national history, yet 
a brief resume of the dynasty of the Stew- 
art or Stuart Kings may rightly hold a 
place in this story of the family. And any such story 
would indeed be incomplete without some account of 
two of the most romantic, yet unfortunate, figures of 
the august family, so generally and justly alluded to 
as the unfortunate Royal House of Stuart, namely, 
Mary, Queen of Scots and Prince Charles Edward, 
Bonnie Prince Charlie. 

Of the sovereigns of the Dynasty who occupied the 
throne, few died a natural death, and fewer still es- 
caped some form of disaster. 

Robert H, the first Stewart King of Scotland, 
reigned from 1371 until 1390 and died a natural death. 

Robert HI, his son, was originally named John, but 
as the Scottish people were not partial to this name 
for their King, he changed his name to Robert. He 
died, in 1406, of a broken heart, caused by the murder 
of his elder son, the Duke of Rothesay, and the cap- 
ture by the English and imprisonment of his younger 
son afterwards James I. 

James I passed manv years of his life in captivity, 
and, as told in the previous memoir of, the Duke of 
Albany, was murdered in 1437. 

James H was only six years old when his father 
was murdered. The wars with the Douglasses were 
a feature of his reign, and he was killed by the burst- 
ing of a cannon in 1460. 



54 History of the Stewart or Stuart Fatnily 

James III, a child of eight years old, succeeded his 
father. He caused the murder of his brother, the Earl 
of Mar, and was himself murdered in 1488. 

James IV married Margaret Tudor, daughter of 
Henry VIII of England. With this reign the modern 
history of Scotland begins. The Universities of Aber- 
deen and St. Andrews were founded. He invaded 
England and was killed at the Battle of Flodden in 

1513- 

James V ascended the throne in succession to his 
father when a child of not two years old. The Queen 
Dowager Margaret assumed the Regency. Henry 
VIII invaded Scotland. The reformation began in 
Scotland, the King and clergy, op'posing, and the 
nobles favoring the movement. James, a king of many 
good qualities and talent, died of a broken heart 
caused by the conduct of his nobles, and rout of his 
army, at Sol way Moss, 1542. 

Mary, Queen of Scots, his daughter succeeded. Her 
Ayell known fate is mentioned later in this chapter, 
as also the murder of her husband, Darnley. 

James VI of Scotland and I of England, son of 
Mary and Darnley, and by whom came the union 
of the crowns of Scotland and England, died a natural 
death in 1625. 

Charles I, his son, fought for his crown, from which 
he was excluded after the defeat at Naseby in 1645, 
and was beheaded in 1649. 

Charles II, after being in exile, succeeded in 1660 
t)n the restoration of the monarchy, and died of a 
Stroke in 1685. 

Tames II of England and VII of Scotland suc- 
ceeded his brother, but so alienated the affections of 
the nation that an invitation was sent to William, 
Prince of Orange, to come "to the rescue of the laws 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 55 

and religion of England"; and William and Mary, 
Princess of Orange, were proclaimed joint sovereigns 
of England in February, 1689, and of Scotland in 
April of the same year. Mary was the elder daughter 
of James II, and William was the son of Mary, eld- 
est daughter of Charles I. They left no issue and 
were succeeded, in 1702, by Anne second daughter of 
James 11. Anne died without issue in 1714. On her 
death the succession passed to the house of Hanover, 
descended from the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of 
James I and wife of Frederick V, Count Palatine of 
the Rhine. George I, elder son of Sophia, the }'Oung- 
est child of the Princess Elizabeth and Ernest, Elector 
of Hanover, became King of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, from whom the present Royal Family take de- 
cent. 

The female issue of James II ended with Anne. 
His son James, called by his supporters James III of 
England and VIII of Scotland, had two sons, Prince 
Charles Edward, referred to later, who died in 1780 
without legitimate issue, and Henry Stuart, titular 
Duke of York, commonly called Cardinal York, on 
whose death in 1807 the male line of James II came 
to and end. 

Widely as some of the branches of the Stewart or 
Stuart family have spread, and numerous as are the 
families of the name, there is not a representative in 
the lineal male line of any of the crowned heads of 
the race. The Crown, which came into the family 
through a female, Marjory the daughter of the Bruce, 
has been transmitted through a female, the Princess 
Elizabeth. 

The house of Bavaria is descended from the house 
of Stuart through Henrietta, daughter of Charles I; 
and the house of Orleans also takes descent from the 



56 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

Stuarts through Charlotte, grand-daughter and heir- 
ess of the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James I. 
In addition to these two families, there are also the 
descendants of Edward, a brother of the Electress 
Sophia. 

The male representation, or Chiefship, of the family 
being extinct in the Royal lines, is claimed by the 
Earls of Galloway, and has also been claimed by the 
Stuart of Castlemilk branch, as descended from a 
junior branch of Darnley and Lennox. 

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, daughter of James 
V and Mary of Guise, was born in the palace of Lin- 
lithgow on the 7th December, 1542. Her father was 
on his death bed at Falkland, when her birth was 
announced to him, and regarded the announcement 
as a warning of his death. Anxiously he asked if it 
was a son. When told it was a daughter, he moaned, 
"It came with ane lass, it will pass with ane lass," 
referring to the crown of Scotland ; but his prophecy 
was not fulfilled. Seven days later the King died. 
Much of her childhood was spent in Inchmahome, 
a small island in the lake of Menteith, and to divert 
the young Princess her solitary residence was shared 
by four young ladies of rank, the celebrated Four 
Marys. All four Marys accomp'anied the Queen to 
France and returned with her to Scotland. The old 
ballad named after her tells of the tragic fate of Mary 
Hamilton, in consequence of the Queen's discovery 
that she and Darnle}^ were lovers. 

The King thovight mair o' Marie Hamilton 
Than the Queen and a' her lands." 

She was condemned to die and "when she came to 
the gallows foot" the poem has her say : 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 57 

"Yestreen the Queen had four Maries, 
The night she'll hae but three; 
There was Marie Seaton, and Marie Beaton, 
And Marie Carmichael. and me." 

In her sixth year Mary, Queen of Scots, was sent 
to the Court of France, where her beauty and intellec- 
tual superiority gained all hearts. In her sixteenth 
year, she was, in 1558, married to Francis, the young 
Dauphin of France, but little older. Mary was already 
Queen of Scotland and heir presumptive of England, 
and when the Dauphin succeeded to the throne in 
1559, became Queen Consort of France, a concentra- 
tion of dignities which perhaps never before occurred. 
In 1560, her young husband died, while yet only in 
his seventeenth year. Mary was now invited to re- 
turn to Scotland, and arrived at Leith in August, 1561. 
It was an unfortunate time for the young Queen to 
return. Zeal for religious reformation was at its 
highest, and on the very first Sunday after her arrival, 
her attendants were mobbed in the Chapel of Holy- 
rood, when about to celebrate mass ; and on the follow- 
ing Sunday, Knox denounced the Queen from the 
pulpit. Her public entry into Edinburgh, her inter- 
view with Knox, her progress through her Kingdom, 
and the Scottish wars of religion, are matters of 
national history. The long series of miseries and mis- 
fortunes which render her story so remarkable began 
with her unfortunate marriage to Henry Stewart, 
Lord Darnley, which took place on the 29th July, 1565. 
Among the first evil results of this marriage was the 
open hostility of her half brother, the Earl of Moray, 
who now stood forward as an open and declared 
enemy, and took the field ; but being unable to cope 
with the Queen, he fled to the English Court. The 
mists soon cleared from Mary's eyes with regard to 



58 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

her husband, Darnley, whom she saw as arrogant and 
brainless, and who declared that Mary had played 
him false with her Italian secretary Rizzio. The 
protestant Nobles did not share his suspicions, but 
feared the influence of Rizzio, and on the evening of 
the 9th March, 1566, occurred the oft told murder 
of the secretary. On the 19th June, 1566, in the 
Castle of Edinburgh, was born her son, afterwards 
James VI of Scotland and I of England. The news 
of the birth of a son was received with the utmost 
joy throughout the kingdom, but from this period 
the page of Mary's story rapidly darkens. At the 
suggestion of the FJarl of Bothwell, now one of the 
most active of Mary's officers of state, the proposal 
was made that Mary should divorce Darnley, but 
she refused to accede to the proposal. Bothwell, how- 
ever, resolved that Darnley should die, and attended 
by a band of accomplices, he proceeded, at midnight, 
on Sunday 9th February, 1567, to the Kirk of Field 
House, where Darnley had taken up a temporary resi- 
dence. A large quantity of gunpowder was exploded 
in the chamber beneath that in which Darnley slept, 
and the house, with all its inmates, including Darnley, 
was totally destroyed. Bothwell was accused by the 
Earl of Lennox, Darnley's father, was tried, but ac- 
quitted. A little more than two months after the 
assassination of Darnley, Bothwell procured the sig- 
nature of a number of the nobility to a document set- 
ting forth, first, his innocence of the crime ; secondly, 
the necessity of the Queen again marrying; and, 
thirdly recommending James, Earl of Bothwell, as a 
fit person to become her husband. He seized the 
Queen's person, and detained her for ten days at 
Dunbar, one of his castles, until he obtained her con- 
sent to espouse him. A few weeks afterwards they 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 59 

were married, but Bothwell's numerous enemies took 
up arms to displace him. A compromise was come 
to whereby Mary delivered herself up- to the opposite 
party, after she had prevailed upon Bothwell to quit 
the field. Mary was confined in the Castle of Loch- 
leven, and, on 24th July, 1567, was compelled to abdi- 
cate, the Earl of Moray being elected to the Regency. 
In March, 1568, Mary escaped from Lochleven and 
placed herself at the head of a large army, surrounded 
by the greater part of her nobilit}^ but was defeated 
by the Earl of Moray at the Battle of Langside, and 
fled by sea to England. She landed at Cockermouth, 
in Cumberland, and proceeded to Carlisle. The un- 
fortunate Queen was now moved from castle to castle, 
and finally, in September, 1586, to Fotheringay, with 
a view to being brought to trial on a charge of having 
aided a conspiracy to assassinate Queen Elizabeth. 
Mary denied that she had ever in word, or even in 
thought, been party to any such conspirac}^ and the 
evidence which was brought to convict the Queen of 
Scotland was such as would not now affect the life 
of the meanest criminal. There was a further charge 
of abetting a conspiracy set on foot by the Duke of 
Norfolk, who had not only aimed at restoring her 
to liberty, but had looked forwarded to obtaining her 
hand. Norfolk's designs were discovered, and he 
perished on the scaffold. In pursuance of what was 
certainly Elizabeth's wish, Mary was found guiltv. On 
the 7th February, 1587, the Earls who were appointed 
to superintend her execution arrived at Fotheringay, 
and on the following morning at eight o'clock, Mary, 
Queen of Scots, was beheaded. Still mindful of her 
birth, and of what she once had been, the unfortunate 
Queen appeared on the scaffold arrayed in her best 
and most splendid attire, and her whole conduct 



60 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

throughout the trying scene was marked with the noble 
bearing and unshaken fortitude of a heroine. Mary 
never forgot for a moment that she was Queen of* 
Scotland, and died with a magnanimity worthy of the 
title. These lines, so bitterly true, are said to have 
been written by the Queen, with a diamond, on a 
window in Fotheringay Castle : 

"And from the top of all my trust 
Mishap has thrown me in the dust." 

Her remains were embalmed and buried in the Cathe- 
dral of Peterborough, but, twenty-five years after- 
wards were removed by her son, James VI and I, to 
Westminster Abbey. 

"Let with my deathe my faults be cleane remitt. 
And with my bones my name exempt from 

wronge. 
My bodye hathe sustainde a guerdon fitt. 
Whose freed soule woulde not be blamed so 

longe." 

The Young Chevalier, the gallant "Bonnie Prince 
Charlie," is the figure in the past which still most 
vividly appeals to the imagination of Scotland. He 
was born at Rome on the 31st December, 1720, grand- 
son of James H of England and VII of Scotland, 
and eldest son of the Chevalier St. George, who claimed 
the title of James III of England and VIII of Scot- 
land, and had himself headed an unsuccessful rising 
in 1 71 5. The full name of the Prince was Charles 
Edward Louis Phillipe Casimir Stuart, and as his 
father was known as the Old Pretender, he is often 
referred to as the Young Pretender. Naturally the 
term is objected to by the supporters of the Stuart 
cause, and the name Prince Charlie, without the use 
of the word Pretender, will answer our purptose. 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 61 

"God bless the King; God bless the Faith's defender; 
God bless — no harm in blessing — The Pretender ; 
Who that Pretender is, and who that King — 
God bless us all — is quite another thing." 

Many of the old families in Scotland still retained 
their attachment to the race of Stuart, their ancient 
monarchs, and several Chiefs of the Clans negotiated 
measures for a rising in the Highlands. Indeed, the 
persevering efforts which the Highlanders made for 
the restoration of the Stuarts, is one of the most 
remarkable things in history. The Clans under Mont- 
rose had recovered Scotland for King Charles I ; they 
had followed "the bonnets of Bonny Dundee," in 
1689; they had been out with the Chevalier St. George 
in 1715; had fought with the Earl of Seaforth in 1719; 
and once again the Clans gathered to follow the 
White Cockade, and fight for the "King o' the High- 
land hearts, Bonnie Prince Charlie." 

"Follow thee! Follow thee! Wha wadna follow thee? 
Lang hast thou loved and trusted us fairly! 
Charlie, Charlie, wha wadna follow thee, 

King o' the Highland hearts, bonnie Prince 
Charlie?" 

On the 8th of July, 1745, there sailed from France a 
man of war of sixty guns named the Elizabeth, and 
a frigate named the Doutelle, on board of the latter 
being Prince Charlie with a few attendants. The day 
after they left port, the Lion, an English man of war, 
engaged the Elizabeth, and the Doutelle made for the 
north of Scotland, where the Prince landed at Eriska, 
in the Hebrides. MacDonald of Boisdale, the first 
man of consequence he met, advised him to return 
home. "I am come home, sir," was the reply. The 
Prince unfurled his standard at Glen Finnan on the 
19th of August, 1745. It was displayed by the Marquis 



62 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

of Tullibardine, who had been exiled for participation 
in the rising of 1715 and now returned to Scotland in 
the Doutelle. The standard which had been raised 
was the Brattach bhan, or White Banner. This flag, 
of large size, was, according to one account, composed 
of red, blue and white silk, or according to another, 
of a red color with the figure of a white standard in the 
middle, and the motto "Tandem bona causa trium- 
p'hans." It was borne in the center of the column by 
the Clans, each having the honor of carrying it on 
alternate da; s. The Clans which had joined Prince 
Charlie were, The Stewarts of Clan Appin, under 
Ardsheal, numbering 250; the MacDonalds of Kep- 
poch, who had alread_.' been in action ; the MacDonalds 
of Clan Ranald, upwards of 300 men; the MacDonalds 
of Glenco numbering 150; Glengarry with 300 Mc- 
Donnells; and the Camerons, under Lochiel, number- 
ing nearly 800. The Prince's adoption of their cos- 
tumes delighted the Plighlanders, and dressed as them- 
selves he marched on foot at the head of his men, 
or occasionally with the different Clans. The little 
band continued to receive additional followers, includ- 
ing the Grants of Glenmoriston, Viscount Strathallan 
and his son, Oliphant of Cask and his son, and John 
Roy Stewart, a most useful officer. The Government 
troops under Sir John Cope, sent to oppose him, de- 
clining battle. Prince Charles Edward occupied Perth 
on the 3rd of September, where he was joined by the 
Duke of Perth with 200 men ; Lord George Murray, 
and many gentlemen of note. Sir John Cope and the 
Government troops continued to retreat before the 
Highlander"^, and the Prince's army having received 
the welcome addition of the Robertsons, MacGregors, 
and more of the Stewarts of Athole, took Edinburgh 
by surprise on the i6th September. The Castle, how- 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 63 

ever, remained in Government hands. Many another 
Hig-hland Chief had now "ta'en the field wi' his White 
Cockade." We find Lord Nairn with one thousand 
men from Athole ; the Chief of MacLachlan and his 
followers; Lord Elcho, eldest son of the Duke of 
Wemyss ; the Earl of Kelly ; Lord Balmerino ; Jaraes 
Hepburn of Keith ; Lockhart of Carnwarth ; the 
} ounger Graham of Airth ; the younger RoUo of Pow- 
burn ; Hamilton of Bangour ; and Sir David Murray. 
The Prince determined to give battle to Sir John 
Cop*e, who had taken up a position at Prestonpans, 
and by a night attack surprised the Hanoverian forces, 
totally routing them. It is related that the Stewarts, 
with the Camerons, rushed straight to the muzzles 
of then enem ;'s cannon, "with a swiftness not to be 
described," taking them by storm; and the High- 
landers' broadsword attack compelled "Johnnie Cope" 
to beat a precip'itate retreat. 

" 'T' ^ni'h' quo' Johnnie, *I got a fleg 
Wi' their claymores and philabegs; 
If I face them again, deil break my legs! 
So I wish you a gude morning.' " 

The Highland army, reinforced by the MacKinnons, 
MacPhersons, Lord Pitsligo with some cavalry, and 
1800 men raised by the Marquis of TuUibardine, 
marched for England. They crossed the Border, one 
column proceeded to Brampton, and the other to near 
Carlisle. After the capitulation of Carlisle, the Prince 
made a triumphal entr - into the city, on the 17th 
of November, and then p^roceeded south, finally arriv- 
ing at Derb ■, only one hundred and twenty-six miles 
from London. During the whole of this long and 
arduous march, the Prince, wearing the Highland 
dress, had shared the fatigues and hardships of his 



64 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

men. The army arrived at Derby on the 4th of De- 
cember, and on the morning of the 6th, to the exceed- 
ing mortification of the clansmen, they left Derby and 
arrived back in Scotland on the i8th, during which 
return march the Government troops were defeated at 
Clifton by the Stewarts of Clan Appin and the Mac- 
Phersons, who charged through hedge and ditch with 
the claymore, "over the necks of the foes of Prince 
Charlie." The retreat* from Derby was much against 
the wish of the Prince and a grievous disappointment 
to him. The opinion has since been expressed, that 
had he p'ressed on to London, the Stuarts would cer- 
tainly have regained the throne. The retreating army 
proceeded to Glasgow, and thence to Stirling, where 
they were joined by other Clans, which, during the 
march into England, had already been out for the 
Stuart cause in Scotland. They included the Erasers, 
the Macintoshes and the Farquharsons. The Govern- 
ment troops were again defeated at Falkirk, after 
which battle, the Prince and his army commenced 
their march to Inverness, where they arrived in Janu- 
ary, 1746. The Duke of Cumberland was advancing 
against them from the south, and on the i6th of April 
arrived at the field of Culloden where the Prince's 
forces were stationed ; and soon after the two armies 
met in that battle which for ever put an end to the 
hopes of the Stuart cause. Some of the Clans had 
already returned to their own country when this dis- 
astrous combat took place, and those engaged were 
suffering from fatigue and short rations. The follow- 
ing Clans took part in the battle : The Stewarts of 
Clan Appin ; The Stewarts of Athole ; Roy Stewart 
and his men ; The Camerons ; The Erasers ; The Clan 
MacLean ; The Macintoshes; The MacLachlans; Far- 
quharsons: The MacDonalds of Clan Ranald; The 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 65 

Keppoch MacDonalds; and The McDonnells of Glen- 
garry. Stewart of Ardsheal led the Clan Appin, and 
a great number of his officers and men were killed 
in their famous charge on the cannon. When the 
Clan Stewart standard bearer was killed, another of 
the Clan tore the banner from the staff, and wrap- 
ping it round his body carried it through the battle. 
The force of the Stewarts of Appiin amounted to 
three hundred men, but together with the Stewarts 
of Athole, Strathearn and Monteith, they amounted to 
nearly four thousand. Colonel Roy Stewart, one of 
the most efficient and active of Prince Charlie's offi- 
cers, commanded a force of four hundred men. 

For the first time the Highlanders were defeated, 
and the terrible scourging they afterwards received 
from the Duke of Cumberland's army has left an 
indelible stain on his memory. The Prince, his me- 
teoric career at an end, found himself a wanderer. 

"He row'd him in a Highland p'laid. 
Which covered him but sparely. 
And slept beneath a bush o' broom 
Oh! wae's me for Prince Charlie." 

His escapes, hardships and adventures, and the assist- 
ance of the brave Flora MacDonald, have ever been 
a favorite subject for artist and writer. The Govern- 
ment offered a reward of ^30,000 for his capture, 
but great as were their sufferings, and well known 
as were so many of Charles' retreats, it was no temp- 
tation for the poorest Highlander to betray his Prince 
For almost five months he was a fugitive among the 
hills in the Highlands, closely scented by the officers 
of the Government, After various concealments, he 
escaped to the Isle of Skye in the character and dis- 
guise of a servant girl, and, after perilous adventures, 



66 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

got on board a French ship', in September, 1746, and 
reached France. He died at Rome, in 1780. 

''Oh ! my Prince, it were well 
Hadst thou to the g-ods been dear, 
To have fallen where brave Keppoch fell, 
With the war pipes loud in thine ear." 




CHAPTER V. 

HE first permanent English settlement in 
the Colonies of America was founded dur- 
ing the reign of James VI of Scotland 
and I of England. Earlier efforts at col- 
onization had been made, but without lasting results. 
In the year 1577 a patent of colonization for Virginia 
was granted to Sir Humphrey Gilbert, and in 1585 
one hundred and eight settlers arrived in the Colonies 
under Sir Richard Grenville, but these attempts at 
colonization were merel}'^ sporadic, and without dur- 
able effect on the colonial development of the new 
land. Not until 1607, when a small body of colonists 
founded Jamestown, did any permanent English set- 
tlement establish itself in the American Colonies. 
This settlement at Jamestown, with other settlements 
along the James River, later became the Province of 
Virginia, and rightly claims precedence as the pioneer 
settlement of this country. In the same year, an at- 
tempt at colonization was made in what is now Maine, 
but the expedition was unsuccessful, and returned to 
England. The year 1620 saw the arrival of the historic 
"Mayflower," followed by the founding of the Ply- 
mouth Colony. Other small communities were form- 
ing along the Atlantic seaboard, the most important 
in New England. Maryland was founded in 1632, being 
followed by other settlements, until, within sixty years 
after the first settlement on the James River, seven 
Colonies were firmly established on the coast of North 
America. 

The current of migration from Scotland was slow 

67 



68 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

in tTie early years of the colonization of America, for, 
during the reigns of the early Stuart kings in England, 
conditions in Scotland were not yet such as to cause 
the hardy Scots to leave the hills and glens to which 
they were attached by so many romantic and domestic 
tres. During the period of the Commonwealth the 
Colonies received a large number of Scottish emi- 
grants, the early Scottish influence being especially 
potent with the founders of the New England colonies. 
At the end of the seventeenth century economic con- 
ditions, both fn Scotland and the North of Ire- 
land, where many hardy and intelligent Scots had 
located, caused a great and valuable influx to the Col- 
onies of Highlanders and Lowlanders from Scotland 
direct, and of Scottish Ulstermen from the North of 
Ireland. As in the case of other Scottish families, 
another motive, religion, led forth many of the clan 
who wished fo live in beliefs, and follow forms of 
religion, which were not tolerated at home ; a motive 
as old as the time of Moses, who cited to Pharaoh 
the reason for the Exodus from Egypt, "We must 
go three days journey into the wilderness to offer a 
sacrifice unto the Lord our God." Again, among the 
clansmen were those who, possessed of an adventur- 
ous spirit, convinced of the truth that, "They wha hae 
a gude Scottish tongue in their head are fit to gang 
ower the world," said farewell to their kin and their 
native hills, seeking fame and fortune in the new 
lana of promise. Boswell relates how the sailing of 
an emigrant ship in those days was an occasion of 
general sorrowing, and that those left behind cast 
themselves weeping on the shore for it was not thought 
that those departing would ever return "home" again. 
Neil Muiiro expresses this in his poem: 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 69 

"My plaid is on my shoulder and the boat is on 
the shore, 
And it's all bye wi' auld days and you ; 
Here's a health and here's a heartbreak, for Its 
home, my dear, no more, 
To the green glens, the fine glens we knew." 
Also, after the rising of 1745, in favor of Prince Charles 
Edward, a large number of emigrants of Highland 
stock left for America, and formed a nucleus of more 
extensive immigration subsequently. 

William Stewart emigrated from Scotland to Maine, 
and settled at Ipswich in that Colony in 1684. In 
1691, the records tell, a lad was "put to Mr. Stewart, 
Shop Keeper of Ipswich for seven years to serve him 
as apprentice," and in 1693 he presented the North 
Church with a silver cup, inscribed^ "Mr. William 
Stewart's Gift to ye Church of Ipswich, June, 1693." 
John Dunton, the bookseller from England, paid a 
business visit to William Stewart, and in his letters 
gives the following glowing description of Mrs. Stew- 
art: "Her stature is of full middle size, fit for a woman. 
He face is still the magazine of beauty, whence she 
may fetch artillery enough to wound a thousand 
lovers, and when she was about eighteen, perhaps 
there never was a face more sweet and charming, nor 
could it well be otherwise, since now at thirty-three, 
all you call sweet and ravishing is in her face, which 
it is a great pleasure to behold as a perpetual sun- 
shine without any clouds at all." William Stewart 
died at IpsAvich in 1693. 

The General Assembly of the Province of Maryland 
held at St. Mary's in 1642 assessed Charles Stuart 
£32 rates, and his name appears in the list of inhaBi- 
tants of Kent, in the same year. The General Assem- 
bly, in 1681, ordered one hundred and fifty pounds 
of tobacco paid to John Stuart. 



70 History oj ike Stewart or Stimrt Family 

A somewhat troublesome member of the family was 
located at New Haven as early as 1639. At a Court 
of New Haven Colony holden 4th of December in 
that year, James Stewart and another were "injoined 
to make a double restitutio to John Cokerill for five 
pounds and seventeene shillings, which they stole out 
of his chist on the Lord's Day in the meeting time." 
James was again in trouble in 1643, when he was 
fined one shilling for being "late coming to trayne," 
and, in 1646, was "complayned of for severall dis- 
orderly expressions and comtempt of the magestracye 
in this place." 

Duncan Stewart was an early settler in the Colony 
of Maine and recorded the birth of a daughter, Kath- 
ren, at Ipswich on June 8th, 1658. 

In 1662, Daniel Stewart was received as inhabitant 
of Barnstable in the Colony of Massachusetts, "and 
allowed equal privilege on the commons and such 
other privileges as belong to the present inhabitants 
as a township." The total number of voters in the 
township at that time was sixty-five. 

In the same year, 1662, another member of the 
family, Alexander Stewart, a tailor in Charlestown, 
MassacVusetts, is recorded as having married Hannah 
Temp? ,. 

"Att a Court of Assistants held at Boston in New 
England the 3rd of March, 1673," James Stewart was 
plaintiff "on appeale relating to the thirty pounds the 
Jury found against him. The Jury brought in their 
virdict, they found for the plaintiff's reversion of the 
former judgment." 

Other early records of the Colony of Massachusetts 
show that Hugh Stewart at Yarmouth, in 1676, was 
taxed £12.15.6 "towards the charge of the late war." 
Only three persons, at this time, paid a heavier tax, 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 71 

showing the importance of this member of the family 
in the community. 

Duncan Stewart was one of the earliest shipbuilders 
in the Colony, at Newbury, and in 1680 removed from 
that place to Rowley, where he died at the age of one 
hundred, in 1717. 

Among the inhabitants of Chatham^ Massachusetts, 
appear the names of Hugh Stewart, in 1696, and of 
William Stewart, in 1698; and at Sandwich, Massa- 
chusetts, between the years 1690 and 1706, seven chil- 
dren are recorded as having been born to James Stew- 
art and his wife. Desire. 

The name of Robert Stewart ap>pears in the list of 
Freemen "appertaininge unto the Plantation of Nor- 
walke, taken this nth of October, 1669." 

In 1670, John Stuart bought a lot on the hill at 
Albany, New York, from John Conell. In 1671, 
Stuart appeared before the Secretary of Albany and 
acknowledged that he was well and honestly indebted 
to Goosen Gerritse in the quantity of thirty whole 
and good beaver skins for "two pieces of duffels,'* and 
twenty-seven whole and good beaver skins for two 
pieces of blankets; and undertook to pay the beaver 
skins during the next trapping season. The lot on 
the hill was sold by Stuart's administrators in 16751 

On the nth of July, 1691, a member of the family 
who was an early settler at Hempstead, Long Island, 
presented the following petition to the proprietors 
and freeholders of that township : "The request of 
John Stuart humbly showeth that inasmuch as it 
has pleased God to make me a master of a family^ I 
finding it a necessity to settle myself, I am willing to 
settle among you, to follow the trade of a cooper, as 
also to practice the art of surgery. I do therefore request 
that ) ou be pleased to give me a right of eighteen or 



72 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

twenty acres of land that is tillable, a little east of 
the Pine Point, near the Plain Edge. It is the bit 
of that hollow, called the Bloody Hollow, for which I 
shall be very thankful, and also ready and willing to 
serve }Ou in either of the arts aforesaid, so far as I 
have understanding." 

The Lords Proprietors of the Province of North 
Carolina formulated certain charges against Governor 
Sothel, in 1691, among such charges being that of 
detaining "one negro and seven pewter dishes" from 
John Stewart. At a Court of the Province held in 
1693, Anne Stewart proved "six rights viz: four 
negroes one English servant and Virgill Simons," and 
in the same year, "At a Court Holden at ye house of 
Mrs. Diana Ffoster the ffirst Munday in November 
beng ye 6th day of the moneth," Anne Stewart was 
granted letters of administration of the estate of Mrs. 
Stewart. William Stewart and his wife were defend- 
ants in a case "for killing a cow calfe to her damage 
40 shillings," at a Court held on loth April, 1705, and 
at A General Court of Oyer and Terminer for the 
Province of North Carolina held on ist November, 
1720, William Stewart was a member of the Grand 
Jury. 

A sporting member of the family made his appear- 
ance at a Court of the Province of Virginia, held at 
Varina, ist April. 1698. John Stewart, Jr., was defend- 
ant in a suit brought by Richard Ward. It was testi- 
fied that Richard Ward had agreed to run a mare 
named Bony, and that John Stewart had agreed to 
run a horse named Watt, the race to be a quarter of 
a mile, the horse giving the mare five lengths. Rich- 
ard Ward laid the odds of ^6 to the ^5 of John Stew- 
art. The mare won. but for some reason not stated 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 73 

Stewart would not pay the bet. Ward got a verdict 
for the amount. 

Patrick Stuart, Laird of Ledcreich in Balgheider, 
Perthshire, with his wife Elizabeth and children, came 
with six other gentlemen from Argyll, and above three 
hundred emigrants from Scotland, to Cape Fear in 
North Carolina, in the year 1739. His brother Will- 
iam Stuart was also in the party. They landed at 
Wilmington and Stuart first settled at Brown's Marsh, 
Bladen County, North Carolina, but about 1766 moved 
to near Cheraws, South Carolina. The Laird was a 
staunch supj^orter of Bonnie Prince Charlie, and when 
the Prince failed to establish himself on the throne, 
the Laird of Ledcreich severed his remaining ties with 
Scotland, and sold his estate to a younger brother. 
He died in 1772. 

Early records of others of the family in North 
Carolina include grants of land to John Stewart in 
1741 and 1 751; and in 1764, the second newspaper 
published in the Province was printed b\' Andrew 
Stewart, a native of Scotland. It was named the 
North Carolina Gazette and Weekly Post Boy, the 
first numl^er being published in September, 1764. 

The family of John Stewart was one of the sixteen 
families who, in the spring of 1719, went to what is 
now the State of New Hampshire, and formed a town- 
ship which they named Londonderry, in memory of 
their former home in the North of Ireland. The 
father of John Stewart was Robert Stewart, son of 
Walter Stewart of Perthshire. Robert was one of the 
Covenanters who fought at the Battle of Bothwell 
Bridge in 167Q. where the Covenanters were defeated 
with great ^nss. four hundred being killed and twelve 
hundred ma^^e prisoners. Robert Stewart escaped from 
Scotland and settled in the North of Ireland, at Lon- 



74 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

donderry. After the siege of that city he returned to 
Scotland, and died in Edinburgh, 1714. His widow 
and children came to America, landing at Boston in 
October, 1718. Their son, John Stewart, was one of 
the grantees of the new town of Londonderry, New 
Hampshire, and lived at a farm known as the Precept 
Farm. The old records show that in March, 1722 
a lot forty-nine acres at Londonderry was laid out 
to John Stewart, and, in 1728, a further thirty-four 
acres of land is added. In 1722, he was appointed 
one of a committee for bounding "Ezekels Pond," 
and, in 1724, was elected one of the two tithing men, 
the following year being elected "sirvayer." On the 20th 
December, 1731, he was nominated on a committee 
"to consider of sending a call or calls to Ireland in 
order to have a second Minister for our Congrega- 
tion." He was chosen as one of the two constables of 
the town for the years 1734-35, but hired another 
person to act for him. 

Other records of this pJeriod show that Robert Stew- 
art, a brother of John, settled at Andover. Also that 
Charles Stewart and Mary, his wife, were married 
at Londonderry on 15th November, 1727, and had four 
children born between the years 1728 and 1733; also 
that John Stuart and his wife had a son, John, born 
to them at Londonderry', on the 29th June, 1737. In 
1722, Walter Stewart of Londonderry married Gizull 
Crumey of Boxford. 

The General Assembly of New Hampshire, in 1724, 
allowed Walter Stewart, master of the "Scooner For- 
tune" a "i:)ortlege" bill of £17.4.6. 

The first permanent settler of Pocock, (now Bristol), 
New Hampshire was Samuel Stewart, who was later 
a soldier of the Revolution in the Battle of Bunker 
Hill. On the expiration of his term of service he re- 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 75 

turned to Pocock, but moved to Royalton, in 1817, 
with an ox team, being fifty-one days on the journey. 
The Reverend John Stuart was the son of Andrew 
Stuart who came to America from Omagh, Ireland, 
in the year 1730. Andrew Stuart had three other sons, 
James, Andrew and Charles. James died young, An- 
drew and Charles settled in the western part of Penn- 
sylvania. Andrew Stuart, the father, was a rigid Pres- 
byterian, but his son John, born at Harrisburg, Penn- 
sylvania, in 1740, joined the Church of England, going 
to England for ordination, where he received Holy 
Orders in 1770, and was appointed missionary to the 
Mohawks at Fort Hunter. In 1775, the War of the 
Revolution began, and many who had previously been 
friends, now found themselves enemies. John Stuart 
did not at first experience any inconvenience, and re- 
mained undisturbed at Fort Hunter for some time, 
even after the Declaration of Independence. But, as 
he had remained loyal to the British Government, his 
continued residence at Fort Hunter became danger- 
ous. After his house was attacked, and his little Church 
plundered, he removed to Schenectady, from whence 
he was ordered to "repair with family forthwith to 
the State of Connecticut until his exchange could be 
procured." He, however, appeared before the Com- 
missioners, "declared his readiness to convince them 
he had not corresponded with the enemy," and was 
paroled with orders to remain at Schenectady. He 
finally obtained permission to emigrate to Canada, 
and set out with his wife and family on 19th Sep^ 
tember, 1781, and arrived at St. Johns on the 9th of 
October, occupying three weeks on a journey which 
is now performed in a few hours. He established 
himself permanently in Canada, although, after Great 
Britain had acknowledged the Independence of the 



76 History of the Stewart or Stvurt Family 

United States, he was invited to settle in the Diocese 
of Virginia. The Reverend John v^as a man of six 
feet four inches in height, and was known by his New 
York State friends as "The Little Gentleman," and 
later the title of "Father of the Upper Canada Church" 
was fitly bestowed on him. He died in 1811. 

Solomon W. Stewart, born in County Tyrone, Ire- 
land, in 1754, came to America and settled in Columbia 
County, New York. He was a Professor of Music, and 
served as Adjutant for General Lafayette in the War 
of the Revolution. 

In 1753, James Stewart petitioned for a license to 
purchase from the Indians, 8,000 acres of land on the 
North side of the Mohawk River in Albany County, 
New York. In the following- year he also petitioned 
for letters p'atent on behalf of himself and others for 
24,000 acres of land in the same locality. 

William Stewart was born near Edinburgh in 1740, 
and came to America in 1770. His son John, accom- 
panied him, and they settled at Florida, New York 
State. 

In the first Circus that ever visited Albany, New 
York, Mr. and Mrs. Stewart from England were the 
riders. Thev had no canvas, nothing but stakes and 
ropes forming a ring for the riders, and collections 
were taken up by the clown among the audience. 

The Secretary of the Trustees in Georgia, in 1733, 
ordered Donald Stewart, a freeholder of Georgia and 
Master of the Pilot Sloop, to provision his boat and 
be on hand to assist any ships in distress. Donald 
was cast away with his sloop and drowned in 1740. 
He was hired by some settlers who were proceeding 
to Augusta, to go and bring their families and effects 
from Carolina. Under a gale of wind he ran upon some 
shoals and his vessel was staved in, his son and 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 77 

another escaping, but Donald himself was lost with 
his vessel. His near kinsman of the same name, Don- 
ald Stewart, about the same time, lost his life through 
the accidental discharge of a gun. 

John Stewart came from Edinburgh about the year 
1723, and landed in North Carolina, from where he 
and his family moved to Liberty County, Georgia. 
In 1750, John Stewart, Senior, late of South Carolina, 
petitioned for a grant of land in Georgia, stating that 
"he had settled a tract of land and cultivated about 
forty acres, having eight negroes now in the Pro- 
vince and also thirteen more, with a wife and two 
children, in South Carolina." He was granted five 
hundred acres on the middle branch of North New- 
port, and later obtained a further five hundred acres. 
At the same time, 1750, John Stewart, Jr., was granted 
five hundred acres of land on the south branch of 
North Newport, he having eight negroes in the Pro- 
vince of Georgia and nine more in South Carolina. 
Later, in 1756, he obtained a further grant of five hun- 
dred acres more, he then having nineteen negroes, and 
a wife and two children. 

Also in the Province of Georgia, a grant of land 
on the River Sapalo was made, in 1750, to James 
Stewart, "many years an inhabitant in the Southern 
part of this Colony;" and of land in Hardwicke to 
Ann Stewart. Robert Stewart, in 1756, and James 
Stewart, in 1757, also obtained grants of land; and 
in 1758, Jojm Stuart obtained a grant of two hundred 
and fifty acres on the island opposite Abercorn. 

Lieutenant William Stewart was born on the estates 
of the Stewarts of Fort Stewart at Green Hill, County 
Donegal, Ireland, about the year 1738. His ancestors 
had ef'^^ated to Ireland from Wigtownshire, Scot- 
land. He came to America in 1758, probably landing 



78 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

at Philadelphia. In 1760, he married Mary Glass and 
went to Meeting House Springs, near Carlisle, Penn- 
sylvania. They had eleven children. He entered the 
first ten of the children in the Family Bible, as 
Stuart; but when the eleventh was born returned to 
the spelling, Stewart. Hence his descendants have 
used both styles of orthography. The names of the 
children are entered on a page in what the Lieutenant 
himself describes, "Wm. Stuart his Bible bought in 
Carslile from John Wilky — Wm, Stuart is my name, 
Do not stale this Book for fare of shame For onder 
nath is the oner's name." When the Revolutionary 
War commenced William Stewart responded to the 
call, and enlisted in the Cumberland County Militia. 
He was Lieutenant in Number 3 Company of Colonel 
John Davis' Regiment, and was wounded in 1777. 
In 1782, he again enlisted against the Indians, and for 
his services received two hundred acres of land on 
Indian Run, Mercer County, Pennsylvania. 

The first appearance in the Colony of George Stuart 
is at Marietta, on the Susquehana River, where he 
had a farm as early as 1717. His farm was on the 
east bank of the river and embraced three hundred 
and fifty-seven acres. In 1722, he was a Justice of 
the Peace for Conestoga Township, and when the 
County of Lancaster was organized he was app*ointed 
a County Commissioner. In 1730 and again in 1732 
George Stuart was elected a member of the Provincial 
Assembly, and it is curious to find recorded that he 
was "licensed. May 5th, 1730 to sell rum by the small." 
He died in January 1733, while attending the Assembly 
in Philadelphia. John Stuart, his eldest son, probably 
came over with his father, and carried on the farm 
after his father's death. Colonel George Steuart, grand- 
son of George Stuart, was born in 1736, and used the 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 79 

spelling Steuart during the chief portion of his life. 
The old Stuart farm passed to George, but there is no 
record to show that he and his wife, Margaret Harris, 
whom he married in 1758, ever occupied the farm. 
Their eldest child was born while they were living 
either at Elizabethtown or Carlisle, and while they 
were at the latter place the farm was sold. George 
Steuart moved to Maryland, settling at Deer Creek, 
where he carried on a farm and also did business ag 
an "innholder." He returned to Pennsylvania in 1775, 
but is believed to be the same as "George Stewart" 
whose name so appears on the roll of the Maryland 
Company of Captain Paca, forming part of the Flying 
Camp that marched to Washington's aid in 1776. On 
the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, George Steu- 
art and his eldest son were among the first to enter 
the patriot army. In 1777, he was appointed to the 
responsible position of Sub-Lieutenant of the County 
of Cumberland, Pennsylvania, with the rank of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. There wefe four Sub-Lieutenants 
whose duty it was to furnish supplies and reinforce- 
ments. The territory assigned to Lieutenant-Colonel 
Steuart was of wide area, extending west to the border 
of Westmoreland County, and North to the border of 
Northumberland County. It is recorded that "he took 
an active part against the Indians on the border dur- 
ing the Revolution." After the War, Steuart was gen- 
erally called Colonel, so it is probable he rose to that 
rank in the War. He died in 1787. 

Lazarus Stewart came to America in 1729. Mar- 
garet, his daughter married James Stewart, and be- 
came the mother of Captain Lazarus Stewart of the 
Colonial and Revolutionary Wars. 

Other early arrivals in Pennsylvania include Archi- 
bald Stewart who arrived in 1728, removing to Augusta 



80 History of the Stewart or Stvxirt Family 

County, Virginia in 1730. He was an ancestor of Gen- 
eral J. E. B. Stuart. William Stewart was born in 1754 
and came to Pennsylvania in 1784. He married Mar- 
garet Getty, niece of the founder of Gettysburgh. 
Robert Stewart was born at Glasgow and died in 
Ireland, 1730. Two of his sons, Samuel and Hugh, 
came to America, Samuel settling at Chestnut Level, 
Pennsylvania, and Hugh at Peshtauk. 

Robert Stewart of the County of Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania, was appointed Sheriff of the County in 1751. 
In the obligation to the King, the name is spelled 
Stuart. 

A supfporter of the Stuart cause in the rising of 
1745, David Stuart left Scotland in 1752 and came 
to the Province of Virginia. His son John, after- 
wards Colonel John Stuart, was then in his fourth 
year. At the age of twenty-one John Stuart, in 1769, 
crossed the mountains to the Greenbrier Valley. It 
was at this time that corn was first cultivated in the 
county. His camping place was near the present 
site of the town of Frankfort. Stuart commanded 
a Company at the Battle of Point Pleasant on the loth 
October, 1744, and witnessed the murder of the Shaw- 
nee Chief, Cornstalk, at the same place on the loth 
of November following. He rose to the rank of 
Colonel in the border wars. Colonel Stuart also led 
the relief from Savannah, in 1778, which saved Don- 
nally's Fort. 

In the year 1762 Robert Stewart was Captain and 
John Stewart, Surgeon, of the Virginia Regiment. 

A prominent figure in the earlier history of South 
Carolina was a member of the family named John 
Stuart. He first came to America at the time of the 
settlement of Georgia, being appointed Superint'idcnt 
of Indian Affairs for the Southern District. Friends 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 81 

in South Carolina obtained that office for him, and 
placed him in the Council of the Province. When 
the Revolutionary War opened in 1775 he was in 
alliance with the Loyalists and Indians, and was com- 
pelled to flee to Florida. His wife and daughter re- 
mained in South Carolina, and were detained there, 
by the Provincial Congress, as hostages for his good 
behavior. Mrs. Stewart, however, escaped and the 
daughter was imprisoned on suspicion of assisting her 
escape. John Stuart went to England, where he 
died before peace was declared, his property in Amer- 
ica being confiscated in 1782. His son, General Sir 
John Stuart took an active part in the War of the 
Revolution. 

At Port Royal and Charleston, South Carolina, a 
new Church was formed in 1731, worshipping in a 
small wooden building with the Reverend Hugh Stew- 
art for their minister. 

The General Assembly of the Colony of Connecti- 
cut, on the nth May, 1710, appointed James Stewart 
as Ensign of the North Compiany in the town of Nor- 
walk, and, in 1734, appointed William Stuart of Ston- 
ington to be Lieutenant of the town Company. In 
1748, the General Assembly appointed Samuel Stew- 
art, Jr., as Ensign of the Norwalk Company. 

An entertainment which surpassed in sumptuous- 
ness anything before exhibited in the place, was given 
by Matthew Stewart of New London, when he re- 
turned to New London from Narragansett, where he 
had been married on the 19th October, 1735. 

The right to hold a lottery for the disposal of his 
land was, in 1759, granted by the Assembly to Mlat- 
thew Stewart of New London, whose memorial asking- 
such right showed that for many years he had exer- 
cised himself in trade, and had been obliged to con- 



82 History cf the Stewart or Stuart Family 

tract large debts, which by repeated losses at sea he 
was unable to discharge. 

George Home Steuart came to Annapolis, Mary- 
land, in 1720, from Perthshire. He married Ann 
Digges, daughter of George Digges of Maryland, a 
descendant of Sir Dudley Digges who fell fighting in 
tlie cause of Charles I. George Home Steuart was 
an M. D, of the University of Edinburgh, and rose 
to great prominence in Maryland. 

Among the immigrants who arrived at Boston in 
1718, and settled at Lancaster was Margaret Stuart 
from Bovedy in the County of Derry, and in a peti- 
tion to the Governor of New England, dated 26th 
March of the same year, appears the name of James 
Steuart, 

John Stuart was admitted a freeman of the Colony 
of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations on the 
1st May, 1730. 

The famous portrait painter Gilbert Stuart was 
born in Rhode Island in 1755. He was the son of 
Galbert Stuart of Newport, who built the first snuflf 
mill in New England. Gilbert Stuart, the artist, 
began to paint almost in his cradle, having orders for 
portraits by the time he was thirteen years of age. To 
learn his art, he went to England in 1772, but after 
two years returned to America. In the last ship 
which sailed before the blockade of Boston, in 1775, 
Stuart again went to England, determined to master 
his deficiencies. In London he became the pupil of 
West, and by 1785 set up for himself. His success 
was immediate, no one but Reynolds and Gains- 
borough obtaining as large prices for their pictures as 
he. In 1792, he returned to America, and after paint- 
ing for two years in New York moved to Philadelphia, 
thence to Washington, and finally settled in Boston, 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 83 

where he resided for more than twenty years until 
his death in 1828. During his career he produced an 
exceedingly large number of portraits. A catalogue 
prepared in 1880 gave a list of 754, but this was ac- 
knowledged to be far from complete. His portraits of 
Washington are numerous. On the tablet in the Hall 
of Fame are his words, "The portrait of George Wash- 
ington was undertaken by me. It had indeed been 
the object of the most valuable years of my life to 
obtain the portrait." 




CHAPTER VI. 

HE year 1774 saw the people of the Amer- 
ican Colonies for the first time recognize 
that the agitation against the acts of the 
Government of Great Britain was a na- 
tional cause. The result was a meeting of Delegates 
from the various colonies, known as the First Conti- 
nental Congress, called at Philadelphia on the 5th 
September, 1774, The year 1775 saw Lexington, Con- 
cord, and Bunker Hill, and the determination of the 
Colonies to resist oppression and enforce the redress 
Cd wrongs. In 1776, the Declaration of Independence 
changed a war of principle to a struggle for the 
separation of the Colonies from the rule of the Eng- 
lish King. 

The fighting blood of the Highland Clan proved 
true to old tradition, and on both sides of the conflict 
those of the name of Stewart, Steuart and Stuart 
took a memorable part. The call of the Continental 
Congress found a quick response, and many of the 
name threw in their lot with the patriot army, and 
fought from Lexington Green to Yorktown for the 
right of self government. 

In the list of Continental Army Officers the follow- 
ing are mentioned as holding commissions in that 
section of the forces engaged : 

Commissary General Charles Stewart, Commissary 
of Issues from 1777 until 1782. 

Colonel Walter Stewart, Pennsylvania, brevetted 
Lieutenant-Colonel by Act of Congress and presented 
with a sword of honor, November, 1776. 

84 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 85 

Lieutenant-Colonel Christopher Stuart, Pennsyl- 
vania, taken prisoner at Fort Washington, 1776^ and 
exchanged in 1777. 

Major John Stewart, Maryland[, the hero of Stony 
Point, mentioned later. 

Major Alexander Stuart, Virginia, wounded and 
taken prisoner at Guilford, 1781. 

Captam Charles Stewart, North Carolina, taken 
prisoner at Charleston, 1780; exchanged. May, 1781-; 
killed at Eutaw Springs, Septembefj 1781. 

Captain William Stewart, Graham's Regiment^ New 
York. 

Captain Lazarus Stewart, PentLsylvania, killed at 
the Wyoming Massacre, 1778, 

Captain and Adjutant William Stewart, Regimental 
Adjutant, 2nd Canadians (Hazen's) Regiment, "Con- 
gress' Own." 

Captain James Stewart, Malcolm's Regiment and 
5th New York Regiment, 

Captain Robert Stewart, Flying Camp. 

Adjutant Solomon W. Stewart, Adjutant for Gen- 
eral Lafayette, 

Lieutenant Nicholas Stewart, 2nd North Carolina 
Regiment. 

Lieutenant Philip Stuart, 3rd Continental Dra- 
goons, led the forlorn hop^ and was wounded at 
Eutaw Springs, 1781, transferred to Baylor's Regiment 
of Dragoons and served to close of war. He was 
member of Congress from Maryland. 

Lieutenant Alexander Stewart, Delaware, wounded 
and taken prisoner at Long Island, 1776. 

Lieutenant Joseph Stewart, 9t!i North Carolina 
Regiment. 

Lieutenant Charles Stewart, I5tb and nth Virginia 
Regiments, 



86 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

Lieutenant George Stewart, 9th North Carolina 
Regiment. 

Ensign Charles Stewart, 2nd Connecticut Regiment. 

Ensign Walter Stewart, Jr., 2nd Pennsylvania Regi- 
ment. 

Ensign John Stewart, 4th New Jersey Regiment. 

Ensign Jacob Stewart, 5th Massachusetts Regiment. 

Chaplain Alexander Stewart, Knox's Regiment of 
Continental Artillery. 

Quartermaster Alexander Stewart, Malcolm's Con- 
tinental Regiment. 

Surgeon Alexander Stewart, Knox's Regiment of 
Continental Artillery, and loth and 3rd Pennsylvania 
Regiments. 

Surgeon's Mate Lewis Stewart, nth Virginia Regi- 
ment. 

Commissary General Charles Stewart was born in 
Ireland, 1729, of Scottish extraction. His grandfather 
of the same name was a Scottish Officer of Dragoons, 
who, for services at the Battle of the Boyne, was given 
an estate in Ireland. The grandson, Charles Stewart, 
came to America in 1750, and became a deputy sur- 
veyor general of the Province of Pennsylvania. In 
1774, he was a member of the first Convention in New 
Jersey that issued a declaration of rights against the 
aggression of the Crown, and, in 1775, a delegate to 
its first Provincial Congress. He was Colonel of the 
first New Jersey Regiment of Minute Men, then of 
the 2nd New Jersey Regiment, and, in 1777, was ap- 
pointed by Congress Commissary General of Issues 
in the Continental Army, serving as such on Wash- 
ington's Staff until the close of the War. In 1784-85, 
he was a Representative from New Jersey in Con- 
gress. 

Colonel Walter Stewart was born in 1756. He 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 87 

raised a company of the 3rd Pennsylvania Battalion, 
and was commissioned Captain in 1776, being ap>- 
pointed aid-de-camp to General Gates the same year. 
In 1777 he was promoted Colonel of the Pennsylvania 
State Regiment, and led it at Brandywine and Ger- 
mantown. He retired in 1783 v/ith the rank of Brig>- 
dier-General, and was said to be the handsomest man 
in the American Army, He was a personal friend of 
George Washington, who presented a miniature oi 
himself set in diamonds to General Stewart's daughter, 
on the occasion of her marriage to Judge Church. 

Major John Stewart of the Maryland troops dis- 
tinguished himself at the storming of Stony Point, 
one of the most brilliant events of the War. At the 
head of one hundred men v/ho had volunteered for 
the desperate assault, Major Stev/art fought his way 
into the Fort with the bayonet. It was half past eleven 
at night when the Americans commenced their silent 
march towards the Fort. All the dogs in the neigh- 
borhood had been killed the day before, that their 
barking might not give notice of strangers near. The 
Americans were undiscovered until within pistol shot 
of the enemy pickets upon the heights, when the silence 
was broken by the roll of drum, the rattle of musketry, 
and the roar of cannon charged with the deadly grape 
shot. In the face of this terrible storm, the little band 
of volunteers forced their way at the point of the bayo' 
net until they reached the center of the works, and the 
Fort was taken. A silver medal was voted by Con- 
gress to Major Stewart. The medal represents Amer- 
ica, personified by an Indian Queen, who is presenting 
a palm branch to Major Stewart. The legend is, 
*Joanni Stewart Cohortis Praefecto, Comitia Ameri- 
cana." On the reverse is a fortress on an eminence, 
in the foreground an officer cheering on his men. He 



88 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

also received the thanks of the Maryland Legislature. 
Later he commanded a Corps of Light Infantry, and 
on 31st August, 1778 had a severe engagement at 
Indian Field v^^ith Colonel Emmenck's command. 
Major Stewart was killed by a fall from his horse at 
Charleston, South Carolina. 

Captain John Stewart was born at Londonderry, 
New Nampshire, in 1745, and enlisted in the French 
and Indian War when only fourteen years of age. He 
took part in the fight with Indians at Oriskany, and 
was at the taking of Montreal in 1760. He served 
under General Montgomery, being at the second cap- 
ture of Montreal in 1775, and through the Revolution- 
ary War under Colonel McCracken. It is said, that 
after the War he refused a pension, saying, "I want 
no pay for having served my country." He died at 
Middleburg, Vermont, 1829 . 

Ten of the then thirteen States are represented in 
the Continental Army by Officers of the family name, 
viz : Delaware, Massachusetts, New York, North Caro- 
lina, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, New Jersey, Virginia, 
Maryland, New Hampshire. 

In addition to the Officers in the Continental Army, 
the family was equally well represented in the other 
troops of different States. It is not possible to make in- 
dividual mention of each hardy hero of the name who' 
braved the horrors of that memorable War, and shared 
the honor of the ultimate victory. There were 229 
soldiers of the name of Stewart, Steuart and Stuart 
from the one Colony of Massachusetts alone! And 
from each of the thirteen States the men of the old 
Clan came forth to battle. Mention may. however, be 
made of the following, who, amongf others of the 
name, served as Officers in the Militia and Levies 
of the States : Colonel Charles Stewart. New Jersey 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 89 

Militia, afterwards Commissionary General, Contin- 
ental Army; Lieutenant Colonel George Stewart, 
Pennsylvania; Captain Solomon Steuart, Massachu- 
setts Militia; Captain Lemuel Stewart, Massachu- 
setts Militia; Captain James Stewart, Connecticut 
Militia; Captain James Stewart, Western Battalion, 
New Jersey Militia; Captain Stuart, Virginia Militia; 
Captain W. Stewart, 3rd Pennsylvania Militia; Cap- 
tain C, Stuart, Pennsylvania Militia; Captain James 
Stewart, New York Militia ; Captain George Stewart, 
Maryland Militia ; Captain Patrick Stewart, North 
Carolina Minute Men; Captain John Stewart, New 
Jersey Militia; Captain John Stewart, New Hamp- 
shire Militia; Captaljn Solomon Stuart, Whitney's 
Regiment, Massachusetts Militia, marched April 21st, 
1775, in response to the alarm of 19th April; Captain 
Wentworth Stewart, Phinney's Regiment, Massachu- 
setts Militia; Lieutenant John Stewart, Connecticut 
Militia ; Lieutenant William Stewart, New Hampshire 
Militia, of Londonderry, was one of the Minute Men 
who marched on the Lexington Alarm in April, 1775 ; 
Lieutenant John Stewart, New Hampshire Militia; 
Lieutenant James Stuart, Pennsylvania Militia; Lieu- 
tenant Robert Stewart, New York Militia; Lieutenant 
Charles Stuart, New York Militia; Lieutenant Will- 
iam Stewart, Vermont Militia ; Lieutenant Charles 
Stuart, Jr., New York Militia; Lieutenant Charles 
Stewart, New York Levies; Lieutenant Alexander 
Stuart, Marv'land Militia; Lieutenant William Stew- 
art, Pennsylvania; Lieutenant Richard Stewart, Penn- 
sylvania Militia; Adjutant William Stewart, Penn- 
sylvania Militia; Ensign Joseph Stewart, Jr., Ver- 
mont Militia; Ensign James Stewart, New York Mili- 
tia; Ensign Robert Stewart, Pennsylvania Militia; 



90 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

Ensign Joseph Stewart, Massachusetts Militia; En- 
sign Joseph Stewart, New York Militia; Master-at- 
Arms David Stewart, Massachusetts. 

Before the commencement of the War of the Revo- 
lution, the Brig "Peggy Stewart" arrived at Annapolis, 
on 15th October, 1774, from England, with an assorted 
cargo. Anthony Stewart, the owner of the brig, was 
one of the signers of the non-importation agreement 
entered into by the Maryland Association; but in 
order to land the rest of the cargo he paid the duty 
on the tea. The people were indignant at what they 
considered his treason and defiance. Stewart was 
very contrite, and offered to burn the tea publicly. 
His offer was refused, as it was desired that Stewart, 
as a recreant Associator should be more severly pun- 
ished. It was demanded that the brig "Peggy Stew- 
art," itself should be burned, and Stewart, seeing there 
was no escape, burnt the brig with his own hands, 
his wife Peggy, for whom the brig was named, watch- 
ing the flames from her chamber window. 

The member of the family whose name is most 
prominent in connection with the War of 1812 was 
Rear Admiral Charles Stewart, "Old Ironsides." He 
was born in Philadelphia on the 22nd July, 1776. His 
father came to America at an early age, and was, 
later, in the merchant service. Charles was the young- 
est of eight children, and at the age of thirteen went 
as cabin boy in a merchant ship, rising rapidly to 
the command of an Indiaman. In March, 1798, he 
was commissioned Lieutenant in the United States 
Navy, and made his first cruise under Commodore 
Barney, operating against French privateers. In 1800, 
he was appointed to the command of the armed 
Schooner, "Experiment," and cruised in the West 
Indies where he rendered efficient service, capturing 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 91 

the French schooner, "Deux Amis", and the "Diana" ; 
besides recapturing a number of American vessels 
which had been taken by the privateers. In 1802, he 
served as executive of the frigate "Constellation", 
blockading Tripoli, but returned in 1803 ^^^ was 
placed in command of the brig "Siren". In this vessel 
he was engaged in the expedition to destroy the 
frigate "Philadelphia", and susequently in the siege 
of Tripoli. In 1806, he was made Captain, and, in 
1812, took command of the frigate "Constellation", 
and assisted in defending the coast from English at- 
tacks. In December, 1813, he sailed in command of 
the frigate "Constitution," in which he took the 
British ships "Cyane" and "Levant." He and his 
prizes were chased by the British ships "Leander", 
"Newcastle" and "Alcaster", and the "Levant" was 
retaken, but Stewart and his other prize escaped. One 
of the British ships, the "Newcastle" of fifty guns 
was in command of another member of the family, 
Lord George Stuart. On Charles Stewart's return to 
America he was received with the highest honors, a 
gold medal was ordered to be struck by Congress, 
and the Legislature of Pennsylvania presented him 
with a gold handled sword. He also received the 
Freedom of the City New York. It was from his 
ship, the "Constitution", that Stewart was affection- 
ately known as "Old Ironsides." After the War he 
was placed in command of the "Franklin", and was 
later employed ashore in the naval service of his coun- 
try. He was retired as Senior Commodore in 1856, 
and, on i6th July, 1862, was commissioned Rear Ad- 
miral, after which he was on waiting orders until 
his death in 1869. An anonymous poet wrote of him, 

"Oh oft may you meet with brave Stewart, 
The tar with the free and true heart; 



92 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

A bright welcome smile, and a soul free from guile. 
You'll find in the hero, Charles Stewart." 

His daughter, Delia Tudor Stewart, married Charles 
Henry Parnell, and became the mother of Charles 
Stewart Parnell, the Irish Home Rule leader. 

The following other members of the family served 
as Officers of the military forces of the United States 
during the War of 1812; Captain Rufus Stewart, 
Vermont ; Captain James Stuart, Tennessee ; Captain 
Thomas Stuart, Tennessee ; Lieutenant William Steu- 
art, Matyland; Lieutenant Alexander Stuart, Mary- 
land; Lieutenant Charles Stewart, 15th New York 
Infantry ; Lieutenant James Stewart, 22nd Infantry ; 
Lieutenant William Stewart, Kentucky ; Lieutenant 
John Stewart, South Carolina ; Lieutenant James M. 
Stewart, Pennsylvania; Lieutenant Robert Stewart, 
Delaware ; Lieutenant Charles S. Stuart, Pennsylvania ; 
Lieutenant Rice L. Stewart, Kentucky; Lieutenant 
John Stewart, Pennsylvania; Surgeon James V. Stew- 
art, Pennsylvania; Surgeon's Mate Abraham Stewart, 
Massachusetts. 

In the War with Mexico, 1846-1848, the family was 
again well represented among the Officers engaged : 
Lieutenant-Colonel Adam D, Steuart, Virginia, bre- 
vetted Lieutenant-Colonel for meritorious conduct 
while serving in the enemy's country; Captain James 
Stuart, South Carolina, brevetted First Lieutenant 
for gallant and meritorious conduct in the Battles of 
Contreras and Churubusco, and Captain for gallant 
and meritorious conduct in the Battle of Chapultepec ; 
Captain James E. Steaart, Maryland; Captain Benja- 
min F. Stewart, Kentucky; Captain George F. Stew- 
art, Mississippi Rifles; Captain Richard A. Stewart, 
Louisiana; Captain Robert M. Stewart, Missouri; 
Captain William W. Stewart, Louisiana; Cap- 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 93 

tain Robert W. Stewart, Louisiana; Lieutenant 
James M. Stuart, Michigan ; Lieutenant William P. 
Stewart, Ohio; Lieutenant John W. Stewart, South 
Carolina; Lieutenant George C. Stewart, Arkansas; 
Lieutenant D. M. Stewart, Florida; Lieutenant James 
E. Stewart, Mississippi Rifles; Lieutenant Samuel D. 
Stuart, Ohio ; Lieutenant John W. Stewart, Missis- 
sippi Rifles ; Lieutenant Alexander Stewart, Arkansas ; 
Lieutenant James M. Stewart, Missouri ; Lieutenant 
Joseph Stewart. Kentucky; Lieutenant George H. 
Steuart, Maryland, and of the Confederate States 
Army in the Civil War; Lieutenant and Paymaster 
Josephus B. Stuart, Kentucky; Surgeon James D. 
Stuart, Kentucky. 

Political strife had for many years been undermin- 
ing the ties connecting the North and South, and 
before the New Year of 1861 had commenced, South 
Carolina had declared its independence, the other 
Southern States in turn seceding, until North and 
South were openly arrayed against each other. The 
first shell at Fort Sumter, on the 12th of April, 1861, 
was the signal for the commencement of four years of 
internecine strife and Civil War. 

The Official Records of the Union and Confederate 
Armies contain 312 references to the name of .Stew- 
art, Steuart and Stuart, but as, in a great number of 
instances, several of the same given name are covered 
by one reference, this figure does not correctly denote 
the total number of the name enrolled. Further, many 
of the States and Territories to whom no quotas were 
assigned furnished troops, and many men were en- 
rolled on short enlistments. 

Among Officers of the family name in the United 
States Arm during the Civil War were: Brigadier- 
General James Stewart, Jr.; Brigadier-General Will- 



94 History of the Stewart or Stuart Famuy 

iam S. Stewart, brevetted Brigadier-General for gal- 
lant and meritorious service during the War; Briga- 
dier-General William W. Stewart, brevetted Colonel 
of Volunteers for gallant conduct at the Battles of the 
Wilderness and Spotsylvania and Brigadier-General 
for gallant conduct at the Battle of North Anna; 
Brigadier-General David Stuart; Colonel Charles S. 
Stewart; Colonel James Stewart; Lieutenant-Colonel 
Adam D. Steuart, also served in the War with Mexico; 
Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew Stewart, Jr., brevetted 
Major for gallant and meritorious service at Plymouth 
and Lieutenant-Colonel for meritorious service during 
the War; Lieutenant-Colonel Isaac S. Stewart; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel William D. Stewart; Major Lyman 
Y. Stuart; Major R. T. Stewart; Major Charles Stew- 
art, brevetted for faithful and meritorious ser- 
vice; Major John Stewart, brevetted for efficient and 
faithful service during the Atlanta Campaign ; Major 
James H. Stewart; Captain William J. Stewart; Cap- 
tain Charles Stewart; Captain William H. Stewart; 
Captain Frederick V. Stewart ; Paymaster William H. 
Steuart; Chaplain Isaac I. Stewart; Assistant-Adju- 
tant-General Andrew Stewart, was confined in Libby, 
Macon, and other Southern prisons for over a year. 
Volunteering obtained, in the North, until late in the 
third year of the War, and large numbers were raised 
in the States and Territories. In the third year, the 
draft also went into effect in most of the States. In- 
cluded in the List of Field Officers of these forces are 
the names of several of the family, among whom are : 
Colonel Charles E. Stuart, Michigan ; Colonel Warren 
Stewart, Illinois; Colonel Elias Stuart, Illinois; Col- 
onel James Stuart, Illinois; Colonel Charles H. Stew- 
art, New York; Colonel Charles B. Stuart, New York; 
Lieutenant-Colonel Franklin B. Stewart, Pennsyl- 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 95 

vania; Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Stewart, Pennsyl- 
vania; Lieutenant-Colonel Milton Stewart, West Vir- 
ginia; Lieutenant-Colonel James W. Stewart, Indi- 
ana; Lieutenant-Colonel Owen Stuart, Illinois; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Robert R. Stewart, Indiana ; Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Chapman J. Stuart, West Virginia; Major 
Joseph M. Stuart, Ohio; Major Gordon A. Stewart, 
Ohio; Major Samuel B. Stewart, Illinois; Major Israel 
W. Stewart, Missouri; Major Robert E. Stewart, U. 
S. Colored Infantry; Major John W. Stewart, Illinois. 
With the Light Batteries were. Captain Arthur Stuart, 
Stuart's Battery, Pennsylvania Militia and Captain 
William Stuart, 3rd New York Battery. 

Brigadier-General David Stuart of the United States 
Army was born in Brookl}^, New York, 18 16. He re- 
moved to Detroit, Michigan, where he practiced law, 
and was a Democratic Representative in the 33rd Con- 
gress, 1853-1855. He removed to Chicago and, on 31st 
October, 1861, was commissioned Colonel of the 55th 
Illinois Volunteers. He was given command of the 
2nd Brigade, Sherman's Division, in 1862, and at the 
Battle of Shiloh was stationed on the extreme left, and 
severely wounded in the left shoulder. In Novem- 
ber, 1862, Colonel Stuart was nominated Brigadier- 
General, and commanded the 4th Brigade, Smith's 
Division, succeeding to the command when General 
Smith was wounded at Chickasaw Bayou. Later, he 
commanded a Division, and took important part in 
the capture of Arkansas Post, in 1863. 

Colonel Charles S. Stewart, great grandson of Rear 
Admiral Charles Stewart, was graduated in 1823 from 
the United States Military Academ ', where he was 
Assistant Professor of Engineering, i8t9-!:4. He was 
made Lieutenant of the Corps of Engineers in 1853, 
and as Assistant Engineer from 1854 to iS"7, and then 



96 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

as Superintending Engineer, served in the construc- 
tion of the defenses of Boston Harbor until 1861. 
In i860 he was promoted Captain. During the Civil 
War he served in the Corps of Engineers, was made 
Major in 1863, and was Chief Engineer of the Middle 
Military Division in 1864 and 1865. He was promoted 
Lieutenant-Colonel in 1867, ^^^ Colonel in 1882. 

In the sister branch of the Union Forces the family- 
was also well represented ; among the officers serving 
in the United States Navy during the Civil War, being 
Rear-Admiral Charles Stewart, the hero of the War 
of 1812, who retired 21st December, 1862 and died 
November, 1869; Rear- Admiral and Paymaster Gen- 
eral Edwin Stewart; Lieutenant Frederick D, Stuart; 
Gunner Charles Stuart; Gunner Thomas Stewart; En- 
sign Charles A. Stewart; Ensign David A. Stewart; 
Midshipman Daniel D. V. Stuart afterwards Rear-Ad- 
miral ; Master and Pilot William Stewart ; Mate James 
M. Stewart; Engineer Henry V. Stewart; Engineer 
Charles A. Stuart; Engineer Frederick D. Stuart, Jr.; 
Engineer Alexander C. Stuart; Engineer William M. 
Stewart ; Engineer Albert Stewart ; Pa} master A. 
Murray Stewart ; Paymaster Charles Stewart ; Chap- 
lain William H. Stewart; Chaplain Charles S. Stewart. 

Paymaster-General Edwin Stewart was born in New 
York City in 1837. While studying law he was ap- 
pointed Assistant Paymaster in the Navy in Septem- 
ber, i86r. In 1862, he was promoted to the grade of 
Paymaster, and ordered to the "Richmond" in the 
South Atlantic Squadron, to which ship he was at- 
tached during the three most eventful years of her 
career. At the end of the War he was assigned to 
duty on the Lakes, and from 1869 he was three vears 
in charge of the Purchasing Pay Office. In 1880 he 
was commissioned Pay Inspector, and in i8qo became 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 97 

Paymaster-General of the Navy. He was promoted 
Rear Admiral in 1899. 

Eliza D. Stewart, ''Mother Stewart", gave herself 
up to the task of collecting and forwarding supplies to 
the sick and wounded soldiers. Subsequently she 
went to the front and there received from the soldiers 
the title of "Mother Stewart". 

In the South, a great number of the name of Stew- 
art, Steuart and Stuart considered allegiance to their 
State of supreme importance, and fought bravely with 
the Army of the Confederate States. Three Generals, 
representing each spelling of the name, are the most 
prominent in the record of the family with the South- 
ern forces. 

One of the most brilliant and picturesque figures 
of the War, General James Ewell Brown Stuart was 
a Virginian by birth and not yet thirty years old, 
having been born in Patrick County, Virginia, in 1833. 
He was of Scottish descent, his ancestors coming to 
America in 1726, first settling in Pennsylvania and 
later removing to Virginia. In 1850 he obtained an 
appointment to the United States Military Academy 
at West Point, where he graduated in 1854, and was 
commissioned Second Lieutenant in a regiment of 
mounted riflemen serving in Texas. Later he was 
transferred to the ist Regiment of United States Cav- 
alry, and was wounded in the Indian warfare at Solo- 
mon's River. When the Civil War commenced he 
was therefore a Lieutenant in the United States Cav- 
alry, but as soon as his State, Virginia, seceded, he 
resigned his commission and joined the Confederate 
forces, being commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel on the 
loth May, 1861. The same year, on i6th July, he was 
brevetted Colonel of Cavalry, and on 24th September, 
he was made Brigadier-General. He was p^romoted 



98 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

Major General on the 25th July, 1862. On the open- 
ing of hostilities he joined Johnston in the Valley, 
and impressed him with a high opinion of his abilities. 
At Manassas he charged and broke a regiment of 
Zouaves, and protected the rear of the army when 
Johnston retired, marching and countermarching in 
such a way as to make the impression that the cavalry 
was twice as many as they really were. At Bull Run 
he did much to give the victory to the Confederates, 
and at the Battle of Deanesville, 24th December, 1861, 
was in command of four regiments of infantry. In 
June, 1862, Stuart conducted the reconnaissance to 
the rear of McClellan's army, known as the Chicka- 
hominy Raid, and in August took an active and brill- 
iant part in the seven days fight at Richmond. He 
made another daring expedition, crossing the Rappa- 
hannock and raiding General Pope's camp and the 
Federal depot at Manassas, capturing a large number 
of prisoners and booty. After much valuable service 
at the second Battle of Bull Run and at Sharpsburg, 
General Stuart, at the head of 18,000 picked Cavalry, 
conducted the celebrated raid on Chambersburg, in 
which he captured 30 United States Government offi- 
cials, 286 prisoners and 1,200 horses. At Chancellors- 
ville. General Stuart personally led the charge that 
resulted in carrying Hazel Green Ridge, the strategic 
point, his battle cry being, "Charge — and remember 
Jackson." He was mortally wounded in the cavalry 
fight at Yellow Tavern, but continued urging on his 
men, who were retreating, "Go back ! Go back ! I 
had rather die than be whipped." These words of 
soldierly entreaty were the last he uttered on the battle- 
field. He died at Richmond, Virginia, on 12th June, 
1864. In person, General J. E. B. Stuart, "Jeb", was 
of medium height, broad and powerful ; he wor^ a 



History of the Stewart or Stimrt Family 99 

heavy brown beard flowing upon his breast, a huge 
moustache with ends curHng up\vards, and the blue 
eyes had at times the dazzling brilliancy attributed 
to the eyes of an eagle. Young, ardent, ambitious, 
as brave as steel, ready with jest or laughter, with 
his banjo player following him, going into the hottest 
fight humm.ing a song, this young Virginian was fn 
truth an original character. To him, the war seemed 
to be a splendid and exciting game. He swung him- 
self into the saddle at the sound of the bugle, as the 
hunter springs on horseback. So this joyous cavalier, 
with his floating plume and splendid laughter, ap- 
peared upon the great arena of the war in Virginhi. 
Lee said when he was mortally wounded, "I can 
scarcely think of him without weeping," and a gener- 
ous foe. General Sedg^vick of the United States Army, 
said, "Stuart is the best Cavalry Officer ever foaled 
in North America." 

Lieutenant-General Alexander P. Stewart was born 
at Rogersville, Tennessee, 1821, a descendant of the 
main line of the family. He graduated from the 
United States Military Academy in 1842, but resigned 
his commission in 1845. He joined the Confederate 
Army in 1861 as Major of Artillery, and was promoted 
Brigadier-General in November of the same year. Upon 
the disablement of General Charles Clark at Shiloh, he 
succeeded to the command of the Division. He com- 
manded the 2nd Brigade, Cheatham's Division, at 
Perryville, and at Stone's River. He was promoted 
Major-General in June, 1863, commanding a Division 
during the Chattanooga Campaign. Promotion to Lieu- 
tenant-General followed, with the command of the 
Army of the Mississippi, which subsequently became 
known as Stewart's Corps. He was in the Atlanta 
Campaign in 1864, in the Battles of Peach Tree Creek 



100 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

and Mount Ezra, in Hood's Campaign into Tennessee, 
and commanded his corps in the Battles of Franklin 
and Nashville. After the retreat from Nashville and 
retirement of General Hood, General Stewart com- 
manded the Army of Tennessee, which fought the 
Battle of Cole's Farm. 

Brigadier-General George H. Steuart was a native 
of Maryland, born at Baltimore in 1828. On graduat- 
ing from the United States Military Academy, he was 
commissioned Second Lieutenant in 1848. He thetl 
served on frontier duty, and on the march through 
Texas, 184S-49. He served in the Cheyenne Expedi- 
tion, 1856, and the Utah Expedition, 1858. On the 
outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, he resigned his 
commission and joined the Confederate Army, in 
which he was commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel in 
June, and promoted Colonel in July of the same year. 
He was made Brigadier-General in March, 1862. Gen- 
eral Steuart led the Cavalry with General Jackson in 
the advance upon General Banks in Ma}-, 1862, and 
was subsequently in command of an Infantry Brigade. 
He was wounded at Cross Keys, Virginia, in May, 
1862, participated in the attack on Culpi's Hill, Gettys- 
burgh, July, 1863, and occupied the right parallel of 
the Confederate center, known as the "Bloody Angle", 
at the Battle of the Wilderness in 1864. After being 
taken prisoner and exchanged he took part in the 
Battles of Spotsylvania and Five Forks. 




CHAPTER VII. 

jHE Atlantic coast line of America became 
by degrees well occupied by the colonists, 
and in the eighteenth century the move- 
ment of the settlers from the seaboard 
regions into the interior became more pronounced. 
Further, in order to obtain lands for themselves, we 
find many of the family name who arrived in the col- 
onies during this period settled inland, or on the 
frontier, taking up lands in the interior of Pennsyl- 
vania, New Hampshire, Vermont and Maine, or 
crossed the mountains into Ohio, Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, joining the company of virile, tenacious and 
aggressive frontiersmen, who with axe and plow were 
fighting the unceasing contest between civilization and 
the rude wilderness of the virgin land. With others 
of their race — Highlanders, Lowlanders and Ulster- 
men — they were the true pioneers of the onward move- 
ment; the long discipline and warlike spirit of the 
clan fearing neither Indian nor the difificulties of the 
path, as they pitched their tents deep into the bosom 
of the undeveloped country, and thrust the outer 
bulwark further and further into the great land of 
the West. 

These hardy pioneers of the name left the indelible 
impress of their character upon the succeeding genera- 
tions of the family, who have, in more peaceful times 
and amid milder institutions, taken part in the stren- 
uous movements of American life, and in each State 
and Territory of the Union filled high pbsitions of 
honor and trust in every branch of politics, letters 
art and industry. 

lOI 



f02 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

Five members of the family have been Governors of 
States. 

Robert Marcellus Stewart was twelfth Governor of 
Missouri from 1857 ^o 1861. He was born at Trux- 
lon, New York, on 12th March, 181 5. After being 
admitted to the bar, he went, in 1838, to Buchanan 
County, Missouri, and on the resignation of Governor 
Polk in 1857, was elected Governor after the closest 
contest ever known in the State. He died at St. 
Joseph, Missouri in 1871. 

The next member of the family to be elected to the 
office of Governor was John W. Stewart, who was 
Governor of the State of Vermont for the term 1870 
to 1872. He was a native of the State, having been 
born at Middlebury. 

Edwin S. Stuart was Governor of Pennsylvania 
from 1907 until 191 1. He was born at Philadelphia 
in 1853. 

The present Governor of Montana, Samuel Vernon 
Stewart, was born in Monroe County, Ohio, in 1872. 
He was elected in 1913, and has since been elected for 
a second term, 1917 to 1921. 

Henry C. Stuart was Governor of Virginia from 1914 
to 1918. He was born at Wytheville, Virginia, in 1855, 
and is descended from Archibald Stuart who came 
to this country in 1726. General J. E. B. Stuart, the 
celebrated Confederate cavalry leader was of the same 
family. 

The family has been represented in both Houses 
of Congress. 

David Stewart, born at Baltimore in 1800, was 
United States Senator from Maryland to the 31st 
Congress. 

After serving as member of the House of Represen- 
tatives in the 30th to 32nd Congresses Charles E. Stuart 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 103 

was United States Senator from Michigan to the 33rd 
to 35th Congresses. 

William M. Stewart served in fifteen Congresses 
as Senator from Nevada, namely in the 38th to 43rd 
and in the 50th to 58th Congresses. A native of New 
York State, he moved to Virginia City, Nevada, in 
i860. 

In the Continental Congress, 1784-85, the family 
was represented by Archibald Stewart as Delegate 
from New Jersey. 

The following have served as Members of the House 
of Representatives : 

John Stewart, from Pennsylvania, to the 6th, 7th 
and 8th Congresses; Philip Stuart, from Maryland, to 
the I2th to 15th Congresses; James Stewart, from 
North Carolina, to the 15th Congress; Andrew Stew- 
art, from Pennsylvania, to the 17th to 20th, 22nd and 
23rd, and 28th to 30th Congresses ; Archibald Stuart, 
from Virginia, to the 25th Congress ; John T. Stuart, 
from Illinois, to the 26th, 27th and 38th Congresses; 
Alexander H. H. Stuart, from Virginia, to the 27th 
Congress, and also Secretary of the Interior from 1850 
to 1S53 ; John Stewart, from Connecticut, to the 28th 
Congress ; Charles E. Stuart, from Michigan, to the 
30th and 32nd Congresses ; Andrew Stuart, from Ohio, 
to the 33rd Congress ; David Stuart, from Michigan, 
to the 33rd Congress ; James A. Stewart, from Mary- 
land, to the 34th to 36th Congresses ; William Stewart, 
from Penns Ivania, to the 35th and 36th Congresses; 
Thomas E. Stewart, from New York, to the 40th Con- 
gress ; Jacob H. Stewart, from Minnesota, to the 45th 
Congress ; Charles Stewart, from Texas, to the 48th 
to 52nd Congresses ; John W. Stewart, from Vermont, 
to the 48th to 51st Congresses, and Governor of the 
State; John D. Stewart, from Georgia, to the 50th and 



104 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

51st Congresses; Andrew Stewart, from Pennsylvania, 
to the 52nd Congress; Alexander Stewart, from Wis- 
consin, to the 54th and 55th Congresses; James F. 
Stewart, from New Jersey, to the 54th to 57th Con- 
gresses; and John K, Stewart, from New York, to 
the 56th and 57th Congresses. 

Connected with the 66th Congress, now in session, 
are the names of Charles W. Stewart, Supterintendent, 
Office of Naval Records and Library, Author; of "The 
Mississippi River," "St. Louis to the Sea," "The Stars 
and Stripes"; William M. Steuart, Secretary of the 
U. S. Tariff Commission; Charles A. Stewart, 
Chief Clerk, office of the Controller of the Currency ; 
Charles E. Stewart, Chief Clerk, Department of Jus- 
tice; George C. Stewart, Receiving Clerk, General 
Land Office; Joseph Stewart, Special Assistant to thtf 
Attorney General, Post Office Department. 

The story of the romantic journey of Robert Stuart, 
one of the early explorers, is told in Washington 
Irving's "Astoria". Stuart was a native of Callender, 
Scotland and came to this country in 1807. In 1810 
he went out as one of the founders of Astoria, Oregon, 
and when it became necessary to communicate with 
the Atlantic Coast, he set out, in June, 1812, with five 
men across the continent, reaching St. Louis after 
eleven months of travel and adventure. Later, as Com- 
missioner for the Indians, his consideration and kind- 
ness earned him the title of "The friend of the Indian." 
His son, David, is mentioned as Brigadier-General 
in the Civil War. 

Another Pioneer of the West, Granville Stuart, born 
near Clarksburg, Virginia, in 1834, went overland to 
California in 1852, returning east on horseback in 
1857. He again went into the Rocky Mountains, with 
his brother James, pirospecting for gold mines, and for 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 105 

forty years was a hunter, miner and stockraiser. From 
1894 to 1898, he was United States Minister to Uru- 
guay and Paraguay. 

The first of the merchant princes of the country, 
Alexander Turney Stewart, was born, of Scottish 
descent, at Lisburne, Ireland, in 1803, and emigrated 
to New York in 1823. His father was a native of Scot- 
land who settled in the North of Ireland. After com- 
ing to New York, Alexander T. Stewart was for a time 
tutor in a school, but with a small legacy received 
from his grandfather started in the dry goods business. 
In 1848, he purchased the property at Broadway and 
Chambers Street, New York, and erected the marble 
building for many years celebrated as the finest dry 
goods store in the United States. In 1862, the great 
building at loth Street and Broadway was completed, 
and he opened branches in different countries, and 
numerous mills. He became a multi-millionaire. He 
died in New York on the loth April, 1876. His wife 
erected the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral at Garden 
City, Long Island, in his memory. 

Two brothers, Robert L. Stuart and Alexander 
Stuart, sons of Kimloch Stuart of Edinburgh who 
came to this country in 1805, were successful mer- 
chants and generous p'hilanthropists. Robert L. was 
born in 1806, and Alexander in 1810, both in New 
York City. Carrying on their father's business, they 
were the first successful users, in this country, of the 
process of refining sugar by steam. The charitable 
donations of the two brothers amounted to millions 
of dollars. Robert L. died in 1882 and Alexander in 
1879. Mary, the widow of Robert L. made generous 
use of her husband's fortune, being one of the most 
philanthropic women New York has even known. 
Stuart Hall and the Stuart Professorship are at Prince- 



106 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

ton University, and the "Robert L. Stuart" collec- 
tion of rare books, prints and manuscripts in the New 
York Public Library is a memorial of her late hus- 
band. Mrs Stuart died in 1891. 

Alvan Stewart, the reformer, was born at South 
Granville, New York in 1790. He devoted the greater 
part of his life to the temperance and anti-slavery 
causes, and died in 1849. 

Members of the family have from early days been 
prominent in the educational work of the country, 
among those notable being: 

Moses Stuart was born at Wilton, Connecticut, in 
1780, and graduated at Yale in 1799. He was ordained 
as successor of Dr. Dana over the Central Church, 
New Haven, in 1806, but, in 1810, removed to An- 
dover as Professor of Sacred Literature, where he 
passed the remainder of his life. He was a preacher 
for forty-seven years, and a teacher for forty-one. 
Among Professor Stuart's writings are "Commentaries 
on Hebrews", many theological works, and a Hebrew 
Grammar. He died in 1852. His son, Isaac William 
Stuart, born 1809, was Professor of Greek and Latin in 
the College of South Carolina, and the author of a 
"Life of Nathan Hale" and "Hartford in the Olden 
Time." 

Philo P. Stewart, founder of Oberlin College, was 
born at Sherman, Connecticut, in 1798. At the age of 
thirty-three he became a missionary to the Choctaw 
Indians. In 1832, he joined the Rev. J. J. Shipherd at 
Elyria, and the result of their endeavors, is Oberlin 
College. Nearly fifty years later, in 1880, the boarding 
Hall was named "Stewart Hall" in memory of its 
founder, who died in 1868. 

Dr. Richard S. Steuart, born at Baltimore in 1797, 
was, in 1828, elected President of the Marvland Hos- 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 107 

pital for the Insane, and was one of the most noted 
alienists of his time. 

The Reverend Robert Stewart, D.D. was born at 
Sidney, Ohio, in 1839, and ordained in the United 
Presbyterian Ministry in 1866. He became Theolog- 
ical Professor in 1881 and Principal of the Theological 
Seminary of the Punjab, India. 

Born at Glasgow, Scotland, in 1853, Reverend 
Charles M. Stuart, D.D. was ordained in the Metho- 
dist Ep'iscopal Ministry in 1880. In 191 1, Dr. Stuart 
was elected President of Garrett Biblical Institute, 
Evanston, Illinois. He published, "The Manifold Mes- 
sage of the Bible" ; "Story of the Masterpieces", and 
other theological works. 

George N. Stewart, Professor of Experimental Medi- 
cine, Western Reserve University, was born at Lon- 
don, Canada, in i860. 

Joseph S. S. Stewart, Professor of Secondary Educa- 
tion, University of Georgia, was born at Oxford, 
Georgia, 1863. 

Dr. George D. Stewart, born Malagash, Cumberland, 
N. S., 1862, was appointed Professor of Anatomy at 
Bellevue Plospital, New York, and is part author of 
the Gerrish Text Book of Anatomy. 

Oscar M. Stewart, Assistant Professor of Physics, 
University of Missouri, was born at Niosho, Missouri 
in 1869. 

Professor Duane R. Stuart was born at Oneida, Illi- 
nois. He was appointed Professor of Classics, Prince- 
ton University in 1907 and is the author of "The 
Germania of Tacitus"' and other works. 

Henry W. Stuart, born at Oakland, California, was, 
in 1909, appointed Professor of Philosophy at Leland 
Stanford, Jr. University. 

Colin Campbell Stewart, born at Owen Sound, On- 



108 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

tario, in 1873 became Professor of Physiology, Dart- 
mouth College. 

George W. Stewart, Professor of Physics, State 
University of Iowa, was born at St. Louis, in 1876. 

Cora Wilson Stewart, Founder of Moonlight 
Schools, was born at Farmers, Kentucky in 1875, and 
is author of the Bill creating the first Illiteracy Com- 
mission. She has written several works on educational 
subjects. 

William Rhinelander Stewart has taken a promin- 
ent part in the establishment of the New York State 
Agricultural and Industrial School for boys, the New 
York Training School for boys and other educational 
work. He was born in New York City in 1852. 

"A good book may be as great a thing as a battle," 
said Disraeli. In addition to those already mentioned, 
a goodly number of members of the family have made 
a noteworthy contribution to American literature and 
art. 

Ruth McEnery Stuart, author of "George Wash- 
ington Jones" ; "Sonny" ; "A Golden Wedding" ; "The 
Haunted Photograph"; "Holly and Pizen"; "The 
Cocoon" ; and many stories of Southern life, was born 
at Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana, in i860, and died in 
1917. 

Charles D. Stewart, of Chicago, wrote "The Fugitive 
Blacksmith"; "Partners of Providence"; "Finerty of 
the Sandhouse", and other similar books. 

Mary Allan Stuart, author of, "The Long Pack"; 
"Reformation of Peggy Paydie" ; "The Land of Prom- 
ise", was born at New Haven, Connecticut, in 1881, 

John A. Steuart is author of "In the Day of Battle" ; 
"Kilgroom"; "The Minister of State"; "Wine in the 
Lees." 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 109 

Hester Stuart is author of "A Modern Jacob", and 
other works of fiction. 

Leonard Stuart, wrote "The Cosmic Comedy"; and 
"The Great God Pan." 

Eleanor Stuart, born at Orange, New Jersey, in 
1876, is author of "Stone Pastures"; "Romance of 
AH" ; "Averages" ; "The Deeper Diagnosis" ; and many 
serial magazine stories. 

Mary Stewart, author of "Once Upon a Time Tales." 

Anna Bird Stewart, wrote "A Midsummer Dance 
Dream", a comedy in one act; Poems; and "Illusive 
Allusions." 

Caroline Taylor Stewart, is author of "The Origin 
of the Were Wolf Superstition", and modern lan- 
guage books. 

Jane Agnes Stewart, born at Boston, published 
"The Frances Willard Book" ; "The Christmas Book" ; 
also Editor of the American Sunday School Union, 
and Editorial writer. 

Charles B. Stuart is author of "Lives and Works 
of Civil and Military Engineers of America" ; and 
"Naval Dry Docks of the United States." 

Thomas Milton Stewart, author of "Ancient Sym- 
bolic Temples" ; "Temple Symbolism of Egypt" ; 
"Temp>le Teachings of India"; was born at Cincin- 
nati in 1866. 

Addison A. Stuart is author of "Iowa Colonels and 
Regiments." 

William Henry Stewart is author of "A Pair of 
Blankets Wartime History in Letters." 

Rev. George C. Stewart, D.D., was born at Sagi- 
naw, Michigan, in 1879. He was first ordained in 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, in 1900, but, in 
1903, was ordained priest in the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, and acted as Secretary of the War Commis- 



110 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

sion of the latter Church. He is author of "Why 
Baptize Babies" ; "The Colours of the Republic", and 
many contributions to Church Magazines. 

Charles M. Stuart published "The Manifold Mes- 
sage of the Gospel"; "Charles Joseph Little". 

George Stuart was born at Saratoga, New York, 
about 1834, and published, with Professor Chase, the 
"Chase and Stuart Classical Series" of elementary 
Latin books. Also School editions of "Caesar's Gallic 
War" ; "Cicero's Select Orations" ; and works of Sal- 
lust, Tacitus, Cornelius Nepos, Virgil and Ovid. 

Judd Stewart was born at Lawrence, Kansas, in 
1867, and is author of Pamphlets on Abraham Lincoln. 
His collection of Lincolniana is the most complete 
in existence. 

A memoir of Gilbert Stuart the famous portrait 
painter is contained in Chapter V. 

James Everett Stuart, Landscape Painter, was born 
in Maine, in 1852, and discovered a process of paint- 
ing upon aluminum. He was awarded a Medal by 
the American Art Society of Philadelphia for his 
painting of Mt. Hood. 

Julius L. Stewart, artist, was born at Philadelphia 
in 1855 and awarded Medals at Antwerp, Berlin and 
Paris, being made officer of the Legion d'Honneur, 
190 1. 

Humphrey John Stewart, Musician and Composer, 
was born at London, England, in 1856. His compo- 
sitions include, "His Majesty", comic opera; "The 
Conspirators", comic opera ; "Montezuma", orchestral 
suite ; "The Nativity", oratorio ; "King Hal", romantic 
opera; Mass in G; and numerous songs, pianoforte 
and violin pieces, and Church music. 

William Stuart, Theatrical Manager and Journalist, 
was born in Galway, Ireland, 1821. He was educated 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 111 

at Eton, became interested in Irish politics, and was 
elected to Parliament. In 1852, he was appointed 
Commissioner of the Income Tax, but two years later, 
becoming- pecuniarily embarrassed by election ex- 
penses, and losses on the Turf, he made his way to 
Paris and thence to New York, where he gained a 
reputation as dramatic critic. He became a theatrical 
manager in Washington and Philadelphia, and then 
lessee of the Winter Garden Theatre in New York 
City, where Booth, Boucicault and Agnes Robertson 
were introduced to the public. After the burning of 
the Winter Garden, in 1867, he was associated with 
Lester Wallack, and died in New York, in 1886, 

Anita Stewart, the Motion Picture star, claimed that 
$10,000 was the minimum weekly salary to which she 
was entitled. 

A remarkable member of the family, Zuriah Stew- 
art, widow of David Stewart, died at Kingwood, New 
Jersey, in 1843, aged one hundred and three. By her 
first husband, named Opdycke, she had eleven chil- 
dren. She left 84 grand children, 180 great grand- 
children, and 39 great-great-grandchildren. 




CHAPTER VIII. 

ANY titles of nobility have at different 
periods of British history, been held by 
members of the family, and at the present 
time six peers bear the family name. 

The head of the noble house of Galloway, Randolph 
Henry Stewart, nth Earl of Galloway, loth Baronet 
of Corsewell and 8th of Burray, was born in 1836, 
and succeeded to the title in 1901. The heir to the 
Earldom bears the courtesy title of Lord Garlics, and 
the principal family seats are Cumloden, Wigtown- 
shire, and Glen Trool Lodge and Garlics Lodge, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. 

The present Earl of Moray is Morton Gray Stuart, 
17th Earl, who is also Lord Abernethy, Strathearn, 
Doune, and St. Colme, and Baron Stuart of Castle 
Stuart. He was born in 1855, and succeeded in 1909. 
There have been repeated Earldoms of Moray, some 
from Celtic times. The first Earl of the present series 
was a son of James V, James Stewart, Prior of St. 
Andrews, Regent of Scotland, who was assassinated 
in 1570. His daughter married the 2nd Lord Doune, 
and tlie husband became 2nd Earl of Moray in 
right of his wife. The first Lord Doune was Sir James 
Stewart of Doune. The principal family seats are, 
Darnaway Castle, Elginshire ; Castle Stuart, Inverness- 
shire; and Doune Lodge, Perthshire. 

The present Earl Castle Stewart is Andrew John 
Stuart, 6th Earl and 12th Baronet. He is also Vis- 
count Castle Stuart and Baron Castle Stuart, and was 
born in 1841, succeeding to the title in 1914. The 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 113 

ancestor of the family, Andrew, son of Sir Walter 
Stewart who was beheaded with his father, the Duke 
of Albany, in 1425, was created Lord Avandale by 
James II, in 1456. The family seat is Stuart Hall, 
Stewartstown, County Tyrone. 

The 4th and present Marquess of Bute is John 
Crichton-Stuart, who also holds the titles of Earl of 
Windsor, Viscount Mountjoy, Baron Stuart, Baron 
Cardiff, Earl of Dumfries, Viscount Air, Lord Crich- 
ton of Sanquhar, Earl of Bute, Viscount King-arth, 
Lord Mount Stuart, Cumrae and Inchmarnock. He 
is also Hereditary Keeper of Rothesay Castle and 
Hereditary Sheriff of Bute. He was born in 1881, 
and succeeded in 1900. The founder of this lamily 
was John Steuart, a son of King Robert II, who, about 
1385, was made Hereditary High Sheriff of Bute. In 
1702, Sir James Stuart was created first Earl of Bute, 
the 4th Earl being made Marquess in 1796. The fam- 
ily seats are, Mount Stuart, Rothesay ; Kames Castle, 
Isle of Bute ; Cardiff Castle ; Dumfries House, and Old 
Place of Mochrum. 

The head of the noble house of Londonderry is 
Charles Stewart Henry Vane-Tempest-Stewart, P. C. ; 
M. V. O.; 7th Marquess of Londonderry, Earl of 
Londonderry, Viscount Castlereagh, Baron London- 
derry, Earl Vane, Viscount Seaham and Baron Stew- 
art. He was born in 1878, and succeeded to the title 
in 191 5. The heir to the Marquessate bears the cour- 
tesy title of Viscount Castlereagh ; and the family 
seats are, Wynyard Park, Durham ; Seaham Hall, Dur- 
ham ; Springfield, Oakham ; and Mount Stewart, Coun- 
ty Down. 

Charles Beilby Stuart-Wortley was, in 1917, created 
1st Baron Stuart of Wortley. 

Many of the ancient branches of the family are now 



114 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

extinct, but among those still existing the foUovvmg 
may be mentioned. 

The ancient Clan Appin and the faniil • of Ardsheal 
are now represented by Robert Bruce Stewart, who 
was born in 1863, and succeeded his father in 1890. 
He is therefore the present head of Appin, Ardsheal 
and the Stewarts of Lorn. 

The head of the family of Steuart of Ballechin is 
John Malcolm Steuart Steuart who was born in 1863. 
The family seats are Ballechin, Ballinluig and Inver 
House. 

William Stewart, born in 1859, is the present repre- 
sentative of the ancient family of Ardvoirlich, and the 
ancestral seat is Ardvoirlich Lochearnhead, Perthshire. 

The head of the branch of Auchlunkart and Tan- 
achie is William Francis Day Steuart, born 1858. cf 
Auchlunkart, Banffshire. 

Alexander Kenneth Stewart, 12th of Achnacone was 
born in 1852 and succeeded his brother. Achnaconp 
the family seat is in Appdn, Arg- llshire. 

The ancient famib- of Castlemilk is now represented 
by William James Crawfurd Stirling-Stuart who was 
born in 1854. The ancestral seat is Castlemilk, Ruth- 
erglen, Glasgow. 

Fifth Baronet and head of the branch of Allanton, 
Sir Douglas Archibald Seton-Steuart was born in 1857, 
and succeeded his brother in 191 3. The head of the 
family is Hereditary Armour Bearer and Squire of 
the Royal Bodv in Scotland. The famil- seats are 
Touch, Stirling, and Allanton House Lanarkshire. 

The head of the family of Greenock and Blackball 
is now Sir Michael Hugh Shaw-Stewart, 8th Baronet, 
and the familv seat is Ardgowan, Stirling. 

Sir Harry Jocehn Urquhart Stewart is the nth 
Baronet of Fort Stewart, County Donegal. Sir Harry 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 115 

is a large landowner, owning 14,000 acres of land. 
He was born in 1871. 

Brigadier-General Sir Hugh Houghton Stewart, 4th 
Baronet of Athenry, County Tyrone, was born in 1858, 
and succeeded his father in 1905. Ballygawley Park 
and I.ough Macroy Lodge are the family seats. 

Sir Simeon Henry Lechmere Stuart, 7th Baronet 
of Hartley Mauduit, Hants, was born in 1864. 

Sir James Stuart-Menteth, 3rd Baronet of Close- 
burn was born in 1841, and is a naturalized American, 
residing at Canandaigua, New York. 

Sir Mark John MacTaggart Stewart was created 
1st Baronet of South wick, Kirkcudbrightshire, in 1893* 
He was born in 1834, and his landed properties ex- 
tend over 18,000 acres. 

Sir Norman Robert Stewart, C. B., 2nd Baronet, 
was born in 185 1. 

The enumeration of all the Stewarts, Stuarts and 
SteUfirts whose names have loomed large in the life 
and history of the British Empire would alone tax 
the capacity of a bulky volume, and it must, there- 
fore, suffice to briefl ' mention a few notable names. 

A romantic and historicallv interesting figure. Lady 
ArabeHn Stuart, daughter of Charles, Earl of Lennox, 
was born in 1575. She was next in succession to 
James VI to the thrones of England and Scotland^ 
after Queen EHzabeth. Her father's mother was Mar- 
garet Douglas, daughter of Henry VH of England's 
daughter, Queen Margaret of Scotland, and the Earl 
of Angus. During the reign of Elizabeth, Lady Ara- 
bella Stuart was the centre of the intrigues of those 
who ODposed the succession of James VI, and numer- 
ous suitors contended for her hand. On the accession 
of James VI to the English throne she was received 
at Court, but her marriage against the express order 



116 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

of the King, to William Seymour a grandson of Lord 
Hertford, lost her his favor, and after numerous ad- 
ventures and escapes she was imprisoned in the 
Tower of London, where she spent the remainder of 
her unhappy career. On her death, in 1615, she was 
buried in the tomb of Mary, Queen of Scots, in West- 
minster Abbey. 

Viscount Castlereagh, Robert Stewart, later second 
Marquess of Londonderry, was the son of the first 
Marquess, and was born in 1769. In 1794, he entered 
the British House of Commons, and, in 1798, was 
chosen Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 
The suppression of the Irish rebellion of that year was, 
in a great measure, due to the steps taken by him, 
and the Union of Ireland with Great Britain was 
passed by the Irish Parliament, "chiefly through the 
powerful abilities of Lord Castlereagh." In 1805, he 
became Secretary of State for War, and the failure of 
the Walcheren Expedition, in 1809, exposed him to 
censure, occasioning the duel between him and Can- 
ning, his colleague in the ministry. The duel took 
place on Putney Heath, Canning being wounded in 
the thigh. In 1812, Lord Castlereagh became Secre- 
tary of State for Foreign Affairs, and represented 
Great Britain at the Peace of Paris, and the Congress 
of Vienna, in 1814. On the death of his father, in 
182 1, he succeeded to the Marquessate of London- 
derry. His mind became aflFected, and he committed 
suicide in August, 1822. He was buried in West- 
minster Abbey between the graves of Pitt and Fox. 

Admiral of the Fleet, Sir Houston Stewart, third 
son of Sir Michael Shaw Stewart of Ardgowan, was 
born in 1791, and entered the Navy in 1805. He served 
at the reduction of Acre in 1840, and at Kinburn, 
Black Sea, in 1855. He was Commander in Chief on 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 117 

the North American Station, 1856-1860, and at Devon- 
port, 1860-1863. Appointed Admiral of the Fleet, on 
20th October, 1872, he died on loth December, 1875. 

Sir Henry Seton-Steuart, of AUanton, author of 
"The Planter's Guide", was born in 1759. In early 
life he served as an officer in the army, but retired in 
1787. Experiments in arboriculture became the chief 
interest of his life. In September 1823, Sir Walter 
Scott, Lord Belhaven and others visited Allanton, and 
reported on the improvements effected there by Steu- 
art's system of transplanting large trees. He published 
"The Planter's Guide" in 1828. His methods of trans- 
planting were tried with great success on estates in 
the United Kingdom, and he was created a Baronet 
in 1814. He died on the 4th of March, 1836. 

"Walking Stewart" was the descriptive name given 
to an eccentric member of the family. John Stewart 
was born in London in 1749, and was' sent to Harrow 
School, where he broke all rules and refused all lessons. 
He went to India, and became interpreter to Hyder 
Ali, later becoming Prime Minister of the Nabob of 
Argot. Leaving the Nabob's court, he walked through 
Persia, Ethiopia and Abyssinia, crossed to Marseilles, 
and walked through France and Spain. After visiting 
England, he again walked from Calais to Vienna, and 
on to Constantinople, living entirely upon vegetables. 
On his return to England, the East India Company 
paid him £10,000 in satisfaction of his claim against 
the Nabob of Argot, which enabled him to give lux- 
urious banquets in "Epicurean apartments", brilliantly 
decorated with mirrors and Chinese pictures. Another 
of his eccentricities^ was to repose in a "trance-like 
reverie among the cows in St. James' Park." He was 
found dead in his rooms on the morning of 20th Feb- 
ruary, 1822. He boasted of being "a man of nature," 



118 History of the Stewart or Stvurt Family 

was a good hearted man, and all his doctrines aimed 
at inducing men to promote the happiness of the 
world. 

John M'Douall Stuart, the South Australian ex- 
plorer, was born at Dysart, Fife, Scotland, in 1818. 
Between 1858 and 1862, he made six expeditions into 
the interior, and crossed the Island continent from 
south to north. Central Mount-Stuart is named after 
him. 

"No braver soldier or more brilliant leader of men 
eyer wore the Queen's uniform." Such was Lord Wol- 
seley's report regarding Major General Sir Herbert 
Stewart. He was born in 1843, ^ great grandson of 
the 7th Earl of Galloway. During the Zulu War he 
served as Brigade Major of Cavalry. In 1882, he 
took part in the Egyptian campaign which followed the 
rising of Arabi Pasha, as Assistant Adjutant Gen- 
eral of the Cavalry Division. After the victory of Tel- 
eJ-Kebir, on 13th September, 1882, the cavalry was 
pushed on to within a few miles of Cairo, largely owing 
to Stewart's energy. Stewart sent for the Governor 
of Cairo, and the same night the citadel was occupied. 
He was made C. B., Brevet Colonel, and A. D. C. to 
Queen Victoria. In 1884, he was made K. C. B. for 
siervices in command of the cavalry at Suakim, and was 
chosen to lead the desert column with the rank of 
Brigadier-General. At Abu Klea, i6th January, 1885^ 
and Metemmeh, the Zerebas formed by Stewart with- 
stood overwhelming Arab attacks, but in the latter 
engagement he was wounded, and died on his way- 
back to Khartoum on the i6th February. He had been 
promoted to Major-General. There is a monument to 
Sir Herbert in St. Paul's Cathedral, and at Win- 
chester School a gateway into the cloisters from the 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 119 

school quadrangle bearing his arms and the school 
arms, "In Memoriam Herberti Stewart." 

The old Scottish names have even been foremost 
in Canadian history, and, in the early development of 
the Dominion, those bearing the family name have 
taken a distinguished part. 

The "Father of the Upper Canada Church", the 
Reverend John Stuart, took refuge in Canada during 
the American War of Independence, as mentioned in 
a previous chapter. He first settled at Cataraqui, i8o 
miles from Montreal. In May, 1786, he opened an 
academy at Kingston, and in the summer of 1788 he 
went round his "parish", which was then two hun- 
dred miles long. In 1789 he was appointed Bishop's 
Commissary for the district, afterwards Canada West. 
At the meeting of the first session of the Colonial 
Legislature, in 1792, he was named Chaplain to the 
Upper House of Assembh', and, in 1799, received the 
appointment of Chaplain to the garrison of Kingston. 
He died in 181 1, leaving four sons who became prom- 
inent in Canadian affairs. His eldest son, George Okill 
Stuart was Archdeacon of Kingston ; John Stuart be- 
came Sheriff of the Johnstown District of Upper 
Canada ; Sir James Stuart, Chief Justice of Lower 
Canada, was created a Baronet and died at Quebec 
in 1853 5 ^^<^ Andrew Stuart was Solicitor General 
of Lower Canada. 

The Hon. John Stewart was for sixty-four years 
a resident of Quebec, and filled many offices in the 
Government and commercial institutions of Canada. 
Upon the accession of Lord Dalhousie to the Govern- 
ment of the Province, he was called to a seat in the 
Legislative and Executive Council, and was app^^inted 
sole Commissioner of the Jesuit estates. He was also 
President of the Board of Trade, President of the Bank 



120 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

of Montreal and Master of the Trinity House. His 
death occurred in 1858. 

The Honorable and Right Reverend Charles James 
Stewart, born 13th April, 1775, was third son of John 
Stewart, 7th Earl of Galloway. He graduated at Cor- 
pus Christi Coll., Oxford, in 1795, and after ordination 
was Rector of Overton Longueville and Botolph 
Bridge, Hunts, In 1807, he took up work in Canada, 
and was appointed to the Mission of St. Armand. Here 
he built a Church at his own expense, and from this 
time devoted his life and fortune to the work of the 
Church in Canada. In 1825, Dr. Stewart was nomin- 
ated to the See of Quebec, and proceeded to Eng- 
land, where, on ist January, 1826, he was consecrated 
Bishop in Lambeth Palace. He returned to Canada, 
where he died in 1837. 

It is not generally known that the figure of Britan- 
nia which appears on the British copper coinage is 
that of a member of the family, Frances Teresa Stuart, 
the court beauty and favorite of Charles II, known as 
"La Belle Stuart." She was a grand daughter of the 
first Lord Blantyre, and was born in 1647. Early in 
1663 she became a Maid of Honour at the English 
Court, and Pepys describes her as the greatest beauty 
he had ever seen, "with her hat cocked and a red 
plume, sweet eye, and little Roman nose," but another 
critic summarized her character, "It was hardly pos- 
sible for a woman to have less wit, and more beauty." 
She had many aspirants for her hand, and the above 
named criticism of her character seems especially per- 
tinent, when we learn that one of such suitors, An- 
thony Hamilton, won temporary favor in her eyes 
by holding two lighted tapers in his mouth longer 
than any other cavalier could manage to retain one! 
She later became Duchess of Richmond and Lennox. 




CHAPTER IX. 

|Y symbols man is guided and commanded, 
said Thomas Carlyle, and the emblems 
used by our forefathers in days gone by 
are well worthy of being remembered. 
From the eminent position occupied by the family 
and its branches, it follows, that the Armorial Bear- 
ings granted and confirmed to those bearing the name 
are very numerous ; eighty-five such Armorial Bear- 
ings being recorded in the Lyon Register of Arms 
at Edinburgh. Many are no longer in use, and a num- 
ber, borne by those of the same line of descent, are 
identical. The following are of most general interest. 
The first Arms to be borne by the family are those 
adopted by the High Stewards of Scotland in the 
twelfth century namely : Or, a fesse chequy azure and 
argent. The Arms therefore consist of an escutcheon, 
or shield, of a gold color, with a fesse, or band, drawn 
horizontally across the centre, one third in width of 
the escutcheon, the band being chequy, that is, divided 
like a chess board into checks of different colors alter- 
nately, in^ this case sky blue and silver. The chequy 
alludes to the chequers of the Steward's Board. These 
Armorial Bearings are retained in the arms of families 
claiming descent from the High Stewards. When 
Robert Stewart, the Lord High Steward of Scotland, 
ascended the throne as Robert II, he abandoned the 
paternal arms of Stewart for the Royal Arms of Scot- 
land. The Royal Arms began as the ptersonal arms of 
Alexander II (1214-1249), or perhaps of his predeces- 
sor, William the Lion (1165-1214). In 1292, they were 

121 



122 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

so far identified with the office of King of Scotland, 

that John Baliol on succeeding to the throne placed 

them on the reverse side of his seal. Robert the Bruce 

on reaching the throne, placed them alone on his seal, 

and abandoned the arms of Bruce, which course the 

House of Stewart followed. The Royal Arms of 

Scotland are : 

Arms — Or, a lion rampant armed and langued azure 

within a double tressure, flory-counterflory gules, 

encircled with the order of St. Andrew, the 

same being composed of rue and thistles, having the 

image of St. Andrew with his cross on his breast, 

thereto pendant. 

Supporters — The Royal Arms do not appear with 

even a single supporter till the reign of James I, (1406- 

1437). In that reign one supporter, a unicorn sejant 

appears. The two unicorns sejant appeared in the 

reign of James III, (1460-1488). 

Crest — On the crown proper, a lion sejant affrontee 

gules, crowned or, holding in the dexter paw a sword, 

and in the sinister a sceptre erect also proper, with 

the motto, In Defens. 

Motto — Nemo me impune lacessit. 

The cry of "St. Andrew" was long the war cry of 
the Scottish King and his people. 

"O for an hour of Wallace wight, 
Or Bruce's arm to rule the fight 
And cry St. Andrew and our Right." 

Arms of the Earl of Galloway: Or, fesse chequy ar- 
gent and azure, surmounted of a bend engrailed gules, 
within a tressure flory counterflory of the last. 
Supporters — Dexter, a savage wreathed about the 
head and loins with laurel, holding a club over his 
dexter shoulder all proper; sinister, a lion gules. 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 123 

Crest — A pelican argent, winged or, in her nest feed- 
ing her young, proper. 
Motto — Virescit Vulnere Virtus. 

Arms of the Earl of Moray : Quarterly : ist and 4th, 
or, a lion rampant, within a double tressure flory 
counterflory, gules, surrounded with a bordure go- 
bony, argent and azure (as a descendant of the Royal 
House of Stuart) ; 2nd, or, a fesse chequy azure and 
argent, for Stewart of Doune ; 3rd, or, three cushions, 
two and one, of a lozenge form, within a double tres- 
sure flory counterflory, gules, for Randolph, Earl of 
Moray. 

Supporters — Two greyhounds argent, collared gules. 
Crest — A pelican, in her nest, feeding her young, 
proper. 

Motto — Salus per Christum redemptorem. 
Arms of Earl Castle Stewart: Quarterly: ist, or, a 
lion rampant, gules, within a double tressure flory 
counterflory of the last, for Scotland; 2nd, or, a fesse 
chequy argent and azure, in chief a label of three 
points, gules, for Stuart ; 3rd, argent, a saltier between 
four roses gules, for Lennox; 4th, or, a lion rampant 
gules, for MacDuff ; the whole within a bordure com- 
pony, argent and azure. 
Supporters — Two dragons, vert. 
Crest — A unicorn's head argent, armed or. 
Motto — Forward. 

Arms of the Marquess of Bute: Quarterly: ist and, 
4th, or, a fesse chequy, azure and argent, within a 
double tressure flory counterflory, gules, for Stuart: 
2nd and 3rd, argent, a lion rampant, azure, for Crich- 
ton. 

Supporters — Dexter, a horse, argent, bridled gules* 
sinister, a stag proper, attired or. 
Crests — 1st, a demi-lion rampant, gules, and over it 



124 History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 

the motto, Nobilis est ira leonis, for Stuart; 2nd, a 
wyvern, fire issuant from the mouth, all proper, for 
Crichton ; 3rd, a wyvern, proper, holding in the mouth 
a sinister hand coup^d gules, for Herbert. 
Motto — Avito viret honore. 

Arms of the Marquess of Londonderry: Quarterly: 1st 
and 4th, or, a bend counter compony argent and azure, 
between two lions rampant, gules, for Stewart; 2nd, 
argent, a bend engrailed, between six martlets, sable, 
for Tempest; 3rd, azure, three sinister gauntlets, or, 
for Vane. 

Supporters — Dexter, a moor, wreathed about the 
temples argent and azure, holding in his exterior hand 
a shield of the last, garnished or, charged with the 
sun in splendour, gold ; sinister, a lion or, gorged with 
a collar sable, charged with three mullets argent. 
Crests — Stewart, a dragon statant ; Tempest, a griffin's 
head erased, per pale, argent and sable, beak gules; 
Vane, a dexter gauntlet, erect, holding a sword proper, 
pommel and hilt or. 
Motto — Metuenda corolla draconis. 
Arms of Stewart of Appin and Ardsheal : Quarterly : 
1st and 4th, or, a fesse chequy azure and argent, for 
Stewart; 2nd and 3rd, a galley, her sails trussed up 
and oars in action, sable, and flags, gules, for Lorn. 
Supporters — Two roebucks, proper. 
Crest — A unicorn's head, maned, horned and bearded 
or. 

Motto — Quhidder will zie. 

Arms of Steuart of Ballechin : Quarterly: ist and 4th; 
or, a lion rampant, gules, armed and langued azure, 
with a double tressure flory counterflory of the sec- 
ond, as descended from the Royal Family of Scotland ; 
2nd and 3rd, or, a fesse chequy, azure and argent, 
all within a bordure engrailed per pale, or and argent. 
Motto — Semper fidelis. 



History of the Stewart or Stuart Family 125 

Arms of Stewart of Ardvoirlich : Quarterly : ist and 
4th, or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory 
counterflor) , gules; 2nd, or, a fesse chequy azure and 
argent, in chief a mullet, gules; 3rd, argent, a saltier 
engrailed between four roses gules, barbed and seeded 
vert, all within a bordure engrailed compony azure, 
and of the first. 

Crest — A dexter naked arm issuant, grasping a sword 
in bend sinister, all p^roper, pommel and hilt, or. 
Motto — Deo juvante vinco. 

Arms of Stirling-Stuart of Castlemilk: Quarterly: 
1st and 4th, or, a fesse chequy argent and azure, over 
all a bend gules, for Stuart; 2nd, argent, on a bend 
sable, three buckles or, within a bordure gules, for 
Stirling; 3rd, gules, a fesse ermine with three crosses 
patee azure, for Crawfurd. 

Crest — A dexter arm erect, couped below the elbow, 
holding in his hand a dagger, all proper. 
Motto — Avant. 

Arms of Seton-Steuart of Allanton ; Or, a fesse che- 
quy azure and argent, surmounted of a bend gules, 
charged with three buckles of the field, on a sinister 
canton of the 4th, a lion passant guardant of the first, 
pierced with a dart proper, and in base a broken spear 
surmounted of a helmet both p*roper. 
Supporters — Two lions rampant guardant proper, 
armed and langued gules, collared of the last, charged 
with three buckles, or. 

Crest — Out of an Earl's coronet, a dexter hand grasps 
ing a thistle, all proper. 

Mottoes — Above the crest, Juvant aspera fortes; 
under the shield, Virtutis in bello praemium. 

"Crest of my sires ! whose blood it seal'd 
With glory in the strife of swords. 
Ne'er may the scroll that bears it yield 
Degenerate thoughts or faithless words." 



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